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Orton Ltd Fujairah




Orton Ltd

Tel: 09-2243573, 09-2228778, 09-2228662, 09-2228851

Category/Detail: No-Category-Info >>>

Fujairah / إمارة_الفجيرة

Address: P.O.Box : 1584, Fujairah


No-Major-Landmark-Info

Company listed before: Oryx Int (Tel: 09-2222741, 09-2222738) | Company listed after: Orton Limited (Tel: 09-2228020)


Up to fifteen companies with similar names or scope of business are listed below:

  1. Kanoo Group, The - Norton - Kanoo Group, The - Norton,
  2. Orton Limited - Orton Limited,
  3. Orton Ltd - Orton Ltd,
  4. Kanoo Group, The - Norton - Kanoo Group, The - Norton,
  5. Kanoo Group, Thenorton - Kanoo Group, Thenorton,
  6. Norton Gen Trading - Norton Gen Trading LLC,
  7. Norton Rose Dubai Branch - Norton Rose Dubai Branch,

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Comments

SONIA NATH, (pmshipmanagement@yahoo.com), 24.12.2011 - 06:09
Our company can provide sea-going personnel of either individuals or complete ship\'s crew, starting from masters and rangingS to lower ranks of personnel e.g. wipers and messmen and on different types of ships including dry cargo VESSELS, container vessels, CAR CARRIERS, cement carriers, bulk carrierS AND TANKERS. Our officers, engineers and ratings preliminary hold national certificates of competency issued in compliance with STCW requirements. Investing heavily in professional abilities we recognize the vital importance of qualified people for a safe maritime environment. Our seafarers have a high degree of technical skills and are internationally respected for their attention to safety issues. They are familiarized with ISM Code polices and have a great experience in the position in their particular rank /licence.
fuckyou, (fuckyou@gmail.com), 25.09.2011 - 05:26
Build your own FREE website at Angelfire.com Share: del.icio.us | digg | reddit | Twitter | facebook THE LONGEST TEXT EVER(I think) Advertise your LTE | Click here | Back to Main Site Table Of Contents (read left to right) Introduction Weird Poem Thing Press Refresh to Escape No one comes here Spooky Quizzes This is getting long. Grape Pie and Organ Grinders Frustration Code: 343 of OFCHB People hate reading. People actually READ this? Evil Cartoon Owls... Rhetorical Questions Code: 472 of OFCHB Love, Joy, and Insane Chaos. TACO-2 Code 742: of OFCHB Family Trip to: A Bar. Farewell loyal reader. Next Generation is DOOMED Weird Sibling and Dead Stuff. Code: 843 of OFCHB More people READ this? Ice Cream Trucks Matrix: Reloaded EVIL dress/ Code: 666 Evil Graduation Pointless Signs of America What else could I have done? JFK conspiracies Memories Moose\'s arch-enemy Horrible Family Vacation Subliminal Messages Fake Commercials Vast Breakfast Food Conspiracy It\'s good to be weird. Sugar Rushed Evils of Tanning Lazy Calculators Squirell\'s Arch-Enemy Not fair Random, Vast Conspiracy Code: 888 of OFCHB The Joys of Gambling Cheeze-Its The Armadillo Episode... Evils of Smoke Dectectors. Need...Sleep... Healthy Competition OFC Lunar Colony \"Pure\" Water Vast Puddle of Knowledge Code: 452 of OFCHB Super-Secret Message Real Grape Pie? Vicious Downward Spiral Imaginary Squirell Money Hypothetical Conversation Life Biscuits Fashion...and stuff. Infinite Possibilities \"Meg\" commercial The Asparagus Wars Santa is EVIL. Guest Rant (PSOCB) Opposite Day Evil Family \"Bonding\" Road Kill Adventures Mary Had a Little Lamb New Format... Wal-Mart is EVIL Horrible Sorority Evil French Fries and \"It\" Here comes Elvis Sugar Rushed 2: The Sequel PSOPC Bot and Strange Thoughts Evil K-Mart... Duck, Duck Goose (Guest Rant) \"Meg\":Barbies Reality TV No Brakes Tons of Fun Aunt Jemima and Quaker Oats Warranties....mwa-ha-ha It\'s incredible There are things down here I\'d never even dreamed of I\'m gonna try and blow it up. Police Dispatch Hello, everyone This is one of the weirdest sites: or your money back We have ZIM, neopets, music, and much, much, more. E-mail us for questions, comments, complaints and information. Why not click on the Very Weird Stuff link to see more, or click on the music link? We have halloween and christmas pictures on the NeoPics link. Cheese is not a wild thing Now I have decided to go for a world record. I will try to make the longest web page ever, made completely out of text Won\'t that be fun? I will just type, and type, and never, ever use copy and paste. Wow...I really must be bored. Just goes to show what boredom can do to you. Any way, that\'s it for now. Wait, no it isn\'t, I still have to keep going, and going, and going. Because I do. THE REST OF THE STUFF I TYPE WILL BE COMPLETLY IN CAPS JUST BECAUSE I CAN. THAT IS ALL. SEEYA Hi, I\'m back. So far this is nowhere near the world record. I think. I don\'t exactly know where it is...oh, well. I\'ll just have to do the very best that I can. No one is really coming here, anyway. So it doesn\'t matter. By the way, TAB is a worthwhile, community-service organization. The form link is to a 100% fake TAB registration form that you can fill out just for laughs. I can\'t believe I\'m bothering to do this. I have very low expectations of my site. None ever comes here, I could do this all day long and I still wouldn\'t have any more hits. This is just a pointless excursive in spelling errors and grammatical imprecision. May your day be shiney The following is an extremely weird poem-thingy that I wrote when I was in a relatively weird mood: never mind that noise my dear can anyone pass the cheese only if you say pretty please oh, boy do I have to sneeze. why must everyone always rhyme, why I’m a poet and don’t I know it? what I fear comes right after here not this life or the next will I ever be able to pass the test? we’re stuck in here, (alone my dear) and we’ll problem never get out so don’t start to shout. it’s dark and I want to go home is where the heart was where is it now? we’ll never know but oh crap it’s starting to snow and it’s time to show and tell about the well that you found last summer at camp when it was damp it was near the ramp oh god why must this be I liked that tree but now it’s gone, farewell so long I’ll miss you as long as you write but then I’m afraid to say good-night. my dear there’s nothing to fear that’s only a box that’s made of blocks next to the wagon that looks like a dragon why are you shaking it’s your fear that is making you shiver and act all a quiver. don’t you know that you only need be afraid of fear and never anything here and certainly not a post that acts like a ghost? See, very weird. At least it fills up my word q uota for the day. Not that I exactly have a word q uota for the day. It just sounded very professional to say it. Anyway, I still don\'t think that anyone is actually coming here. You\'d have to be an absolute loser (or really bored) to come here. I\'d probley come here, but that isn\'t much of a surprise. After all, I\'ve been to the Really Really Big Button That Doesn\'t Do Anything website over 50 times. Pathetic. But, whatever. As long as I\'m happy, right. Humor the crazy person, okay? Oh, guess what? According to someone you problem don\'t know, this is the second most pointless website ever Next to the Really Big Button, of course. I feel special. Come on everyone, group hug. Okay, now I\'m starting to scare myself...I\'m gonna quit for today. Seeya. Now I\'m back. Is this getting confusing to you? Too bad. Now I want you to go to http://quiz.ravenblack.net/blood.pl?biter eon\" If you do this I\'ll get points in the game. Come on all you non-existing people Help me You know you want to It\'s a worthy cause Honestly, the more time I waste playing the game, the less time I\'ll work on this site and the less stuff you gotta read. Although why you\'d be here if you didn\'t want to read is beyond me. Maybe you\'re lost. Okay, if you want to get out, click the little refresh button, okay? Good...what? You say it didn\'t let you out? Oh, well. You must be caught in a time warp. Keep pressing it. Maybe you\'ll break free. What\'s that. The little counter at the bottom keeps going up? Never mind. That\'s just how many times you have to click before you can leave. Good-bye. Hey, I\'m once again: back. I don\'t suppose you fell for that little thing about the refresh button. After all, you\'re a responsible, intelligent person who apparently has a lot of time on your hands. Well, you can\'t possibly have more time than I do. I mean, after all, I made this site. You\'re only browsing it. And most people don\'t even come here. Not even my friends...*sniffle* The just ignore this poor, pathetic little page. All they do is fill out the TAB form and leave. I think. Maybe they\'re here right now HI HOW ARE YOU DOING? I\'M FINE THANKS FOR COMING YES, I\'M YELLING Who am I kidding. This page won\'t get a single hit, unless I bribe people...now that has possibilities. Okay, fill out the TAB form, so I have proof that you bothered to come here and...uh...I\'ll...uh...send you a sandwich? Please allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. I\'m bored. I\'m gonna go hug a moose. MOOSE I love-d you moose Hey, I\'m back again Yea...*waits for applause* okay Now I want all you loyal fans...*cricket chirps* to go to the link to see what I\'m like. I took a whole bunch of personality quizzes and posted them there. I\'m an evil villain, kitty and a freakazoid so far. And I only took the quiz once, too. Spooky how accurate they are...anyway, I command you to go I\'m going. I\'m back. I\'m gonna start counting how many times I say back. Let\'s see: 1...2...3...4...5 Wow. I must really be desperate for something to do. I now officially have proof that someone has been here It was one of my friends. Apparently this page really is getting long, because my friend said something to that effect. Maybe. Anyway, moving on I\'m just basically typing nothing. Just like all those reports people have to do. You know? With a specific number of words. They start out with half that number, and then just fill in words until they have the right amount. I salute those people. You\'re great tradition is being carried out here, on the second most pointless site ever Well. Maybe eventually some weird, bored person will wander onto my site on accident and be mildly entertained be my site until they wander onto a live video feed of a coffee maker. Or maybe not. I only know that I\'m entertaining me, which was my original goal. So. I\'ve done what I\'ve set out to accomplish. Yea, me I\'m so special. You see, most people, they don\'t like reading or writing. So if you\'re not most people, you\'ve made it down this far without skipping, skimming or getting the spark notes version. (Which I think does not exist) My point is, if you\'ve bothered to read this, then, (like me) you probley have also read the ketchup bottle so many times that you have it down verbatim. Look verbatim up. It\'s a word. But, you should know that, since you like reading. Or maybe you\'re just skimming. Anyway, there\'s nothing wrong with reading food labels. You might be asked a question about them on a quiz show. And now, for the million-dollar question: How many calories are there in a single serving of Mustard? I can just see it now...It could be called Know-Your-Food. Or You are What you Eat. It\'d probley be as popular as those game shows that no one\'s ever heard of. Speaking of food, what\'s up with pie? There\'s strawberry pie, apple, pumpkin and so many others, but there is no grape pie I know. I\'m just as upset about this unfortunate lack of development in the pie division. Think about it. Grapes are used to make jelly, jam, juice and raisins. What makes them undesirable for pie? Would they dry into raisins? Couldn\'t you just stick some jelly in a piecrust and bake it? It just doesn\'t make any sense. Another thing that bothers me is organ grinders. You know, the foreign guys with the bellhop hats and the little music thingy and the cute little monkey with the bellhop hat who collects the money? Okay. They\'re basically begging on the street. How did they ever afford an organ-thingy? Wouldn\'t it make more sense to get a kazoo, if you\'re broke? And if they\'re so poor, what possessed them to buy a monkey? I mean, I don\'t think I could afford a monkey, and I\'m not exactly on the streets. Obviously I at least have a computer...so, back to the organ grinders. I would have sold the monkey and the organ and been able to eat for at least a year. Or, if I was weirder than I am, I could at least kill the monkey with the organ and eat it. Why on earth did they keep the monkey? It must have cost a fortune to feed...not to mention the mess. That\'s just one of those many facts of life that are better left mysteries. Especially since no one but me would ask the question. I better go. I think I hear a monkey...Okay...now I\'m back. That\'s the sixth time I\'ve said back I realize that this longest text ever must be very boring and not worth anyone\'s time. But I\'d like to take this time to thank the 2 and 1/2 people in the entire universe who have bothered to read this entire thing. I\'m not exactly sure who they are, but: thanks Right now, my spacebar is malfunctioning...that\'s not good...I have to press it two or three times just to insert a freaking space. Maybe the evil little faeries with the sharp little teeth have put their evil faerie dust on my computer. Or maybe not. This is too frustrating. Goodbye for now...Now I\'m back. And still frustrated. But for a different reason. Today I had the misfortune of playing a Treasure Planet game on neopets.com It was terrible. Apparently the point of the game was to get your character to shout \"Whoo-Hoo \" as many times as possible before you splattered your brains on the rocks, all the while listening to a soundtrack that is similar to a dying ceiling fan. Of course, when I started out I accidentally hit the rocks approximately three million times. Halfway though I used my four remaining brain-cells to decide that the game was dumb. So my goal changed from surviving to laughing evilly while my character died. So the game naturally did everything it could to preserve my life. The stupid game is still going on and I refuse to quit because I want my points. My character is actually dodging the stupid rocks better now then when I controlled him. I hate irony. Seeya. Okay. Now I\'m back again. Today I added an update page, which is basically a less chaotic, outlined version of this without all the ranting. It\'s more like techno talk about arrays and how much I suck and whether or not the Braves will win this year. Okay, the whole braves thing is made up. But everything else I\'ve said so far is true. I think. Maybe I should start on a boring disclaimer...Eh-hem. All contents of this site were designed for entertainment purposes only. Any use thereof that is not stated in the above mentioned statement would make the author, hereby referred to as Patron Saint of Paper Clips, very angry. Should you violate the purpose of this site: i.e. become not entertained, the Patron Saint of Paper Clips will be forced to take drastic measures. This is specified in Code: 343 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook. Ooooo…that’s a great idea I’m gonna start q uoting from the Flaming Chicken Handbook Code: 343 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook states that the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (that’s me) is allowed to cause vague, pain like sensations while the offending person (or alien life form, dog, etc.) isn’t paying attention. Now I have a purpose in life To make up q uotes from the non-existent Flaming Chicken Handbook, which I’m sure you have a copy of. No? Too bad. It’s in the mail, I promise Now I must take my leave…and remember. Cheese is watching. Okay...I\'m back...I think that eventually half of this thing will consist of the word back over and over again...that\'s just weird. Which fits the motif of the rest of the site. There\'s even a money back guarantee. Isn’t\' that nice? See? Now no one can ever say that I don\'t take care of my viewers. Especially since I don\'t have viewers. I have readers. Wait...I really don\'t even know if anyone bothers to read this. Even if I put it in a less chaotic, more user-friendly format people would still ignore this because it involves: reading. Yes. Sad to admit, but the majority of people would rather read the summary at the back of a book rather than the whole book itself. What has the world come to? It\'s pathetic. Especially since I\'m bothering to write all this. It\'s not fair Why can\'t I have more readers? All the other internet writers have nothing on me, except they\'re better at advertising, having a central theme/plot and basically more talented. Whereas I\'m more into the whole ranting and raving stage right now. Plus, I am horrible at spelling. Which is bad. Thank the powers that be for spell-check. The single greatest invention of the computer gods. I\'m getting bored, so I think I\'m done for the day. May your day be shiney I\'m back again And I feel weird I found at that yet another one of my friends is reading this. Creepy. Just how much time do they have on their hands. Perhaps their just trying to be nice. I can just see it now...an organization devoted not to feeding the hungry, or peace, or love or whatever, but to giving recognition to all those poor, pathetic, unpopular websites. I wonder what it\'s name would be. Don\'t Ignore Sites? Would it be called DIS? Isn\'t that like a slang term for an insult? Would that be considered poetic justice, or just a nice coincidence? And why do I even care? I\'ll tell you why. Because I have nothing else to do right now. I could be playing neopets, but ever since my bad experience with Treasure Planet, I don\'t feel like it. Oh, by the way, I noticed that whenever I use spell-check, my stupid computer turns the word probley into to word problem. To prevent this, I did nothing. So, it is now up to you, the imaginary reader, to decide whether I mean probley or problem...it\'s almost like a game But without the bad sound track. And I promise not to force you to live when you would rather die. Moving on, I have nothing else to say, but don\'t feel like quitting just yet. I\'m like the little engine that could. Or maybe the Energizer Bunny. I just keep going, and going and going. Or I could be like that annoying guy on T.V. who keeps asking if you can hear him. If my site manages to last a decade, my readers *snicker* will probley wonder what I\'m talking about. My answer is simple. It doesn\'t matter. I\'m just rambling. Which means that it doesn\'t matter if you understand anything I say. Doesn\'t that make you feel better? I bet it does. Wow. Look how long this has gotten. I even impress myself. Who would have thought I have this much free time? And I congratulate any reader who has gotten this far. Ooooooo You must check out the fortunes section of the random stuff page I\'ve just gotten an idea for some more, original, fortunes...I gotta go (may the moose be with you) And now I am back. I swear. If iI fill out the fake tab form I\'m gonna have to put back as my favorite word...I already have filled it out, though. Would it be cheating to fill it out again? Only if I had multiple personalities. Or would it be cheating if I didn\'t have multiple personalities? The world may never know. Just like how many licks it takes to get to the bottom of a tootsie pop. Would it vary? The number of licks, I mean. Someone could have super-disolving spit, or watery-spit. Or what if you took big ol\' slobbery licks? Does the commercial take that into account? No. It doesn\'t. And let me tell you, it\'s an outrage. It deludes all of American\'s sweet, innocent, candy-loving children into thinking that a cartoon owl is smarter than they are \"Mr. Owl, can you tell us how many licks does it take to get to the bottom of a tootsie pop?\" Or whatever. And \"Mr. Owl\" replies \"One...Twoo...Three Chomp\" And he bites it. That teaches our youth that it\'s okay to agree to help someone, and then ruin their experiment. Well...it\'s not. I am going to start a protest group. Teens Against Cartoon Owls. We could call ourselves TACO I love the little tacos, I love them good That is a direct q uote from GIR, co-star and comic-relief on INVADER ZIM. Hmmmm...intersting. I put hyphens in both of his titles...it must be a conspiracy I gotta go. Those TACO buttons don\'t make themselves, you know. I\'m back again. And not so cheesed off about the whole tootsie roll pop thing. Right now, I have another twenty minutes on the Internet before I\'m gonna watch T.V. And I can\'t think of anything else to do. So, predictably, here I am. It\'s not like I have anything better to do. Obviously, you know this. After all, look how long this text is. I wonder if I\'ve made the world record? If I did, would I stop this? Why bother asking? I\'ll will most likely still be adding to this on my death bed. Hmmmmm...has any old, senile person ever written anything? Was it coherent? Did it make more sense that this text? Is it possible to make less sense? Am I enjoying asking retorical questions? Yes. Yes, I am. But I seriously wonder what something written by a senile person would be like. I\'ve heard of poems and stuff written by people who were high, insane or paranoid. But never senile. Can a senile person write? Aren\'t they regressed to a child-like state? Does it even matter? Is anyone even reading this? Did I resume asking retorical questions? Do you care? Is this eating up time? I feel like I\'m playing questions only on whose line is it anway. I probley should have capitalized something, or underlined but I\'m feeling lazy...hey, you try to keep your two and a half readers happy It\'s really stressfull. Someday, I\'m gonna snap and just delete this entire thing. Gee, I hope not I worked sorta hard on this. It\'s great for making random topics weave together to form an overall infrastructure of chaos. That made little sense. That\'s why it\'s here, and not some critically acclaimed site. Ooooooooooooo I\'m gonna q uote from the FLAMING CHICKENS HANDBOOK again Yep I bet you were just breathless in anticipation. Okay. Here goes. Code: 472 of the Flaming Chickens Handbook states that this site in no way aknowledges the existance of other, better sites (hereon reffered to as the Losers) The Losers are a myth. The Patron Saint of Paper Clips (me again ) claims no knowledge as to where that particullary nasty rumor started, but confirms that this is the best site ever. It would be a sin against humanity for a better site to exist. Should you refuse to aknowledge the Patron Saint of Paper Clips as the ruler of the Internet, you will be subjected to punishment as stated in Code 343 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook (i.e. Experience vague, pain-like sensations when you\'re not paying attention) This has been a public service announcement. This is a test, I repeat only a test. Had this been an actual emergency, we would have bought up all the can openers and charged 3 cows and a pig for each one. I repeat, lock all you doors and windows, this is it. I repeat, there is nothing to worry about. Everything is fine. The end is not here. I\'m going, you\'re on you\'re own Ahhhhhhhhhh I\'m back *smiles brightly* And apparantly delusional Anyway, I just finished rereading my longest text ever. And I became inspired to talk about nothing. You see, I periodically read the longest text ever to check the constant downward spiral of my sanity. Hmmm...I seem to be entertaining myself though, even while reading what I wrote. Which is why I still go to the Really Really Big Button That Doesn\'t Do Anything website. Because I am easily amused and have lots and lots of time on my hands. Maybe, some day far in the future (like next Thursday) I\'ll print a copy of this insane text. And then go door to door distributing it. Eventually, this would become a monthly tradition. Whole families would gather around their front door, in breathless anticipation while they attempted to barracade me out. I can just see the whole community rising to thwart my attempts to spread love, joy and insane chaos. I probley wouldn\'t actually print this out (think how much paper it would take ) but if I do, only friends and enemies will receive copies. Hmmmm...maybe my condition is worsening. Or not. I\'m still peeved about the cartoon owl from the Tootsie Roll Pop commercials. He is pure evil. TACO will eventually destroy him. Unless he has already been destroyed by an even more radical Anti-Cartoon-Owl group. I hope not. Or, would that be good? I suppose I could let someone else have the glory. After all, I\'m not in this line of buisness for the fame, fortune and power. What line of buisness, do you ask? Why, the assasinating annoying cartoon characters buisness. (Actually I just question them untill they spontaneously combust, I ask lots of questions) So, in conclusion, ladies and gentleman of the jury(that\'s you) I could not have possibly tortured \"Mr. Owl\" to death. I love owls. Hmm...I seem to be jumping from one subject to another more frequently. Either I am growing more comfortable with my on-line writing, or I am progressivly getting more insane and chaotic. I also am psyco-analyzing myself a lot today...hmmmm...I\'m even saying \"hmmmmm...\" a lot. Just like a real psychologist. Hmmmmmmm. Time for another boring disclaimer Code: 742 of the Flaming Chickens Handbook states that in no part does the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (That\'s still me ) actually claim to be mentally ill. That\'s either a) a publicity stunt b) An attempt at humor c) a cry for help or d) none of the above You can e-mail your responses by conducting a scavenger hunt of this site. Some of the pages of this site contain a link encouging the two and a half people to e-mail the Patron Saint of Paper Clips. There may also be evil little links that are designed to confuse you. These links send stuff to someone named johnjones333@hotmail.com The Patron Saint of Paper Clips does not know who this individual is, but sincerly wishes that you send all your hate mail to him. Not that the aformentioned individual claims to have received hate mail (or mail of any kind) via a website link. Thank-you for your time. Remember to send your answers to my sanity quiz to the e-mail account, flamingchickens333@hotmail.com Oh, and once I refer to myself in the first person again, the handbook q uote is over. I just thought that I might like to mention that. Oh. You\'re still here. I figured you rush right on over to e-mail me. Perhaps you don\'t have time to waste e-mailing me. HA HA HA That\'s funny If you you don\'t have time to waste, what are you doing here? Oh, who am I kidding. I figure that even the people I manage to lure onto my site from neopets don\'t even bother to come to this particular page. Maybe I should make the link come here directly...Hey What a good idea That way I can spread my love, joy and insane chaos to more people I\'m a genius. Gotta go, must lure innocent victems to the second most pointless site ever I\'m back. And really angry, and confused. I\'ve always known that I was weird, that\'s always been a given. But now I realize that I am considerably more normal than the rest of my family. Today we had a \"family outing.\" Now, most families will go bowling, or putt-putt golfing. They may go to a resteraunt with an arcarde, or the movies or to a theme park. Not my family No, we got the greatest family outing of all. We got to go to a bar and play pool *waits for readers to become insanely jealous* Yep, that\'s right, a bar with a pool table Not only did we get world class cuisine (under-cooked hotdogs and over-cooked hamburgers), my little sister (age 10) got taught pool by someone I strongly supect is an ex-convict Naturally when it was announced that we\'d be eating dinner in this place, I could hardly contain my excitment(I glared at my mother and asked why we couldn\'t go to Pizza Hut) When we arrived, we were promptly served (after thirty minutes) In the meantime, we played a family game of pool(my parents played while my brother and sister and I watched) After two rousing rounds, our food came. The food was superb, (our food came the exact opposite of how we ordered it, and half of the onion rings were missing) Then we joyfully returned to our game(my sister and the ex-con played my mom) We spent hours there (from 5p.m.-7:15p.m.) There were many people that were the same age as me and my siblings (no one in the room but us were under 30) Us kids had to be dragged kicking and screaming from the bar ( I almost fell asleep during the last game I watched) As we left, there was a feeling of goodwill and fellowship between all(my sister locked me out of the car and wouldn\'t let me in untill I started yelling profanity in her general direction) The high point of the entire night was when my mother gave me $21 for my report card. She promptly borrowed $1 to help with the waitresses tip(This part I\'m not being sarcastic about) All in all it was a night I\'ll remember forever (as the lowest point in \"family outing\"history, except for that time my mom dragged me to a church thing on the concept of truth.) My brother(age 13) even decided upon a new job he wants when he\'s old enough to work, a busboy at the bar. We had to tell him that he would probley have to wait untill he was 21.(Absolutly nothing about that statement was sarcastic) As you can see, I love my families outings(Not unless you\'re blind...or stupid) # #% (*%$ WHAT THE %$#@ WAS MY MOTHER $#$#%$# THINKING ???? BRINGING $#$$# KIDS IN A BAR ? I know it was her idea, \'cause my dad hates it, too. My mom and my stupid little 10-year old sister loves it, though. *sighs* Why does my life have to be so weird? I\'m leaving...now I\'m back And not so pissed at my weird family. Now is the time to mourn the loss of one of my most loyal readers (I think she\'s read the entire thing one time, which is more than anyone else has done so far) She has been banned from accesing any portion of the Internet, do to reasons that must remain confidental due to security reasons. If I told you, I\'d have to kill you and all that stuff. So...now I am down to one and a half readers. Untill such time that I have more. I wonder why anyone would read this? You would have to have several characteristics that I possess. First of all, you\'d have to have an extrodinary amount of free time. Second of all, you would have to have the patience to read through all of this. And lastly, you\'d have to know where the heck this site is. I admit it. I haven\'t exactly advertised this site. Nor can I find it on any search engines. Some of my pages have stuff written in to make search engines recognize me, but it doesn\'t seem to be working. What must I do to rise above obscurity? I tell people I know about this site, but they either ignore this page, or don\'t even bother coming to the site in the first place. I suppose that is the bane of all authors. To pour your heart and soul into a passage, and have everyone ignore it. *sniffle* Why must this be? Maybe I should just give up. After all, no one would really care if I quit updating this site. But I can\'t help but think of stuff like the evil over lord list and REALLY REALLY BIG BUTTON THAT DOESN\'T DO ANYTHING. They are not great neccesarily because of the content, (although that helps some) they are great because of their sheer length. You can read a little each day. And almost never finish. Also, I guess I still am trying to get the world record. I have heard some feedback suggesting that I make someway for people to remember where they stopped reading. It can be very confusing, especially if you weren\'t paying attention in the first place. Well, I dont want to organize this page, in any manner. This is chaos. And insanity. Not neat little text in classifiable rows, in alphabetical order. If you want neat, go to some other site(though, as mentioned in Flaming Chickens Code:472 there is no such thing as a site better than this one). Otherwise, I guess you\'re stuck with me. Awwwww...I\'m touched You didn\'t run screaming to another site, thankfull for the chance to escape this insanity. You\'re still here, which must mean that you\'d rather be here than anywhere else Hey, where are you going? I thought you were gonna stay here and keep me company? *drags reader back* See, I knew you\'d stay *gagged reader glares* What\'s that? I know this is the best site ever, thanks for the compliment *reader starts inching towards freedom* I better go...I think that I may have a problem brewing. I\'m back. And very concerned about this new, younger generation (all 10 year olds who were born in 1992) They are supposed to be the future. Instead they appear to be a nuclear armagedon in the form of a fifth grader. I chanced to have an interview with an informant from this evil generation (my little sister) who will be called Mrs. X for security reasons (no, she\'s not married, the \"Mrs\" makes it good as a disguise) I was quizing Mrs. X on Civil War History for an upcoming test in her classroom (whose location can not be devulged) Mrs. X seemed fluent in the subject. Using prior knowledge, I deduced that Mrs. X was full of crap. Out of sheer curiosity, I asked Mrs. X who participated in the Civil War. She immediatly replied \"Clara Barton\". I clarified, which countries fought in the Civil War. She answered: England, Russia, and (out of sheer desperation) Iraq. I believe that she was just listing countries she knows America has fought against. Now, correct me if I\'m wrong...but Iraq? I don\'t know if Iraq even existed in the Civil War Era Why on earth would we go have way across the world to fight them when we didn\'t even really need oil? Moving on, I finaly managed to coax my sister (I\'m tired of writing Mrs. X) to tentativly guess that America fought in the Civil War. I mean, who\'d a thought? America? Fighting in the American Civil War? In a moment of inspiration, I asked her who America fought. Her first guess was enslaved africans. Well, at least she knows that slaves were involved in the war. Before she could start listing all of America\'s enemies, I gave her a hint. I said \"The Union fought...\" With a crack, snaple and pop, some random synapses in her brain connected in the right order and she said \"CONFEDERACY \" I was very proud of her, just as you would be proud of a two-year-old who has just announced: \"I WENT POO-POO ON THE POTTY \" What I mean is, you wouldn\'t be very proud if the average person said that they just took a dookey on the toilet, and you wouldn\'t be very proud if they knew who fought against the Union in the Civil War. I confirmed that the Union was Northern and Free, and that the Confederacy was Southern and Slave. We resumed quizzing and she got every question on the worksheet correct. This is because she memorizes the questions. That way, she can pass the test without actually learning anything. You see, if you memorize stuff, you only have to remember that the answer to number 6 is Clara Barton for a week, rather than having to remember that Clara Barton started the Red Cross for the rest of you life. I sincerely appologize if anyone is offended by my view of memorization. I also would like such persons to immediatly leave my site. You don\'t belong here. You see...knowledge is good. If my sister...uh...Mrs. X were ever asked a question on the Civil War on a quiz show, she\'d come up with nothing. With knowledge you can win money and the opportunity to look like a dork on national television. My sister is a big believer in the memorization system. I previous time when I was studying with her (American Revolution, this time) I was trying to help her remember the difference between the Patriots(Patriotic to America) and the Loyalists (Loyal to Britain) She didn\'t know what the word patriotic meant. I tried to explain. I asked her how you dress on the forth of july (she said nice) I asked what the colors red, white and blue were (pretty). I gave up in exasperation. More recently, I was trying to instill a sense of empathy and niceness in her. I asked her what the golden rule of christianity was. She didn\'t know. When I pressed her, she confessed she didn\'t know what chrisianity was. Completly defeated, I told her that it was the religion she practiced every Sunday when she went with her friends to church. This confirmed my suspicion that she only went so that she could have the use of the church\'s playground equipment. My family also strongly suspects that she stole $20 from the donation thingy. Anyway, that\'s my rant on the new generation that contains my little sister. When someone of her generation runs for president, I\'m gonna do a complete background check. If they\'re anything like my sister, I\'m movin\' to Canada. Gotta go...the Russian-Brittish-Iraqi-enslaved-Africans are coming to defeat the Mexicans. I\'m back *there\'s that darn cricket again* And I have a genuine question to ask all of my loyal readers *cough-cough* Okay, here it is: Is it normal for a non-gender specific sibling to carry around various dead reptiles (snakes, turtles, lizards etc.) Furthormore, is it considered accepted behavior to talk to these dead reptiles, in a cooey, baby talky kind of voice? Finnaly, is it expected for said sibling\'s non-gender specific parent to encourage such behavior, citing \"I was just like that as a child\" as an excuse? It\'s an honest question as I fear that my non-gender specific sibling is weird. Who am I kidding? My entire family is weird. It\'s just a matter of degree. Hey, by the way. I\'m sorry that my last few entries have been only about my various family antics. Although I can\'t see why you care, because there is a large probability that you do not exist, because I don\'t think anyone is reading this anymore. How discouraging. People need to make the time to waste time. It\'s a time honored tradition. Who\'d thought that I could use time that many times in only a few sentences? It\'s been pretty quiet here lately, which is why I haven\'t added anything to this text in awhile. I know, you were just crushed that nothing new was happening. It\'s a sad, cold, cruel world out there and you had nothing to relieve the monotony of it. *sniffle* I feel so sorry for you Next thing you know, you\'re internet connection will die. Well, too bad Do you know I never even had a computer untill just a few months ago (that\'s why I\'m obsessivly writing here) So I won\'t pity you if you\'re computer dies for unexpected reasons. Time for another q uote from the FLAMING CHICKEN HANDBOOK Code: 843 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook states that in no way is the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (guess who?) responsible for any faulty wiring or lack thereof in your computer. The Patron Saint of Paper Clips in no way wishes harm on your computer. Any derogatory statement is simply an opinion of an individual, not of the flaming order of the flaming chickens. Said order will in no way be held responsible for any damages, injuries, loss of life, limb, head, or organs. Okay, q uote is done. Maybe I should put q uotation marks around them...nah, too much work. But I probably will eventually get around to having a seperate page just for the FLAMING CHICKEN HANDBOOK. That way all the members (what members) can print out a copy of it for themselves (if they didn\'t get that copy in the mail) I guess I\'m done for the day...I know. You want me to stay. It\'s okay. Because eventually, I\'ll be back Seeya I\'m back. And once again suprised. When I was at a TAB poetry thingy (TAB is good TAB is great We love TAB) I met some new people. One of these people (who shall remain nameless untill such time that I have explicit permission to use her name) turned out to be almost as weird as me. As in...she read the ENTIRE Longest Text Ever. The whole thing. So far two whole people (to my knowledge) have read the entire thing, and a few people have skimmed it. That means I really can justify claiming to have two and a half readers I\'m so happy That means my pointless obsession has actually entertained someone besides me Perhaps, one day, far in the future, this will actually be a world record and random people will acutally voluntarily read this text every day. Or maybe not. The point is that it is nice to have readers. Or maybe it\'s not...I mean...won\'t the quality *snicker* of my work deteriorate if I am no longer writing for the target audience of me? If that happens, then no one will read this. And then I\'ll be writing for me again. And then the quality will rise. And then people will start reading. And then the quality will go down and the vicious spiral of good and bad will continue untill I either give up this text, or go crazy...er. In any case...I should probably find a topic. Yeah...a topic would be good. Or...I could just continue to write about finding a topic. Ooooo I know a topic Ice cream trucks This has been bothering me for a while. You see...when it\'s hot, you want something cold to eat. Conviently, ice cream trucks come around during the hottest part of the year (it must be a conspiracy). As you may or may not know, small children swarm the ice cream trucks. The vendors even play whimsical music which I strongly suspect contains subliminal messages to make you hungry for ice cream. The vendors get oodles of cash, and the kids get ice cream. Now, in today\'s society of buying groceries on-line and getting them delivered, why hasn\'t any other food industry marketed this ingenius idea to bring the product to the consumer. I can just see Hot Dog, and Pizza trucks roaming the neighbor hoods, selling treats to hungry children...and adults. Of course, said adults would have to peel their butt-cheeks off the couch...but they\'d have to do that for the delivary man anyway. The food trucks could even play music that made you hungry for their food. Then the problem with obesity in America would be blamed on evil food truck drivers as opposed to the harmless, benificient television and computer. We could all breath a sigh of relief as parents kept their children inside, away from the evil truck drivers and near the T.V. Gone would be the days when parents told children to play outside, it\'s a nice day. Parents would buy their children computers, video games and other television neccesities. This, of course would expand the market for such products. This would lead to a better, more stable economy. Food industires would be buying cars, gas and music. Parents would increase the purchase of entertainment items. In return companies would make a profit, pay their workers better. The workers would then be able to afford more entertainment items and the upward spiral would continue, as opposed to the evil downward spiral of my writing. In conclusion, Ladies and Gentlemen...if you implement my idea, there will be peace and prosperity for all. As long as you don\'t mind a few more couch potatoes. Gotta go...I think I hear a catchy jingle. I\'m back...it\'s been awhile since I\'ve written here. A lot has happened. Like my EVIL school computer deleting my updates page. But it\'s all good. Especially since I just saw The Matrix: Reloaded. The following text may spoil the movie for you, so WARNING: do no read this unless you have already seen the movie. Okay. What I liked best was the philosophy on choices. (the mindless fight scenes were really cool, too). It\'s like this. In the beginning of the movie, Neo is having dreams about Trinity\'s death. Later, The Oracle tells him that he has already decided her fate. Towards the end of the movie, Neo chooses to tell Trinity to stay out of the Matrix, since he saw her die in it. She agrees, but only after seeing how important it is to him. After a horrific chain of events (is it coincidence, or fate) the people who will deactivate the secondary power source of the building Neo is infiltrating, die. So...the plan is going to fail. Unless someone does something, Neo, Morpheus and many others will die. Trinity, who is of course outside of the Matrix, knows this and chooses to enter the Matrix to save the day. The events of Neo\'s dream unfold. So...when the oracle said that the choice had already been made, she was completely correct. The moment Neo woke from dreams of Trinity\'s death, he made a choice. He would do everything in his power to keep his dream from becoming reality. So he kept her out of the Matrix, and she saw the problem, and entered the Matrix to fix it. If she had been in the Matrix, she would have likely been with Morpheus, never would have known about the plan\'s failure, would therefore not have been in the situation that resulted in her death. And the plan would have failed and Neo might have died, along with a large portion of the city (the building was set to blow if there was any intruders) So...Neo\'s choice to attempt to save Trinity triggered the sequence of events that led to her death. As Neo realizes all of this, through a nearly omniscient Architect of the Matrix, he makes another choice. This choice is simply an extension of his original choice: he will save Trinity at all costs. Neo is told that he has two choices. He can save mankind, and doom Trinity. Or he can try to save Trinity and doom mankind. No guarantee that he\'ll succeed in saving Trinity. He goes for Trinity, makes it just in time to catch her body, and starts her heart back up. In return for not taking the easy route, he gains a power in the more or less real world. He can deactivate the machines, (squidies) but at great personal cost. The movie ends with him in a coma. Now, you must realize that I have described only one aspect of this movie of all movies. There are not enough words in the English language to describe the sheer coolness of the fight choreography, special effects and the plot. I highly recommend you see the movie yourself. I\'m sorry that today\'s rant isn\'t random, insane or completely chaotic, but I must right my experience with The Matrix before I forget. I am so buying this movie when it comes out on DVD. I love it You have to admit its sheer coolness. I mean, come on It\'s the sequel to the movie that revolutionized the standard by which we judge special effects. I better stop typing before I have a heart attack...just remember...The Matrix has you...I\'m back. And throughly pissed off at my school system in general. You see...they feel that the only way to reward academic achievement...yada-yada-yada...is to force the smart kids to be ushers for Senior Honor Nite, and Graduation. Where is the logic in this? I for one, didn\'t know about such dire consequences for not deliberatly failing classes. It was bad enough that I was forced to \"volunteer\" my precious time (i could have worked on this site)...no...I was forced to wear formal attire. My school system is stuck in the past...and formal attire means...a dress...a white dress...(for those you who never bothered to find out...I am indeed female). So...for the first time in about 5 years...I wore a dress...and something that was complelty white. What cruel fate is this? To compound the EVIL situation...I was forced to wear feminine shoes. In other words...they hurt. And they pushed my toes together. Since I have a rather weird phobia of touching my own skin...this made my evening my own personall torture session. I think that such gender-specific torture should be deemed inhumane and abolished from our great society...of flaming chickens. Henceforth...Code: 666 of the Flaming Chickens Handbook states that under no circumstance will the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (guess who) be forced to wear anything other than a t-shirt and preferably black jeans. Should you violate this right, you will become destroyed or possibly dizzy. I\'m leaving now...I have some destruction to do. i\'m back. from graduation. we had to get there one hour and fifteen minutes early because there was traffic. After standing around a lot...the ceremony started. Lots of people spoke. by the time I had to do my part (tell people where to stand before getting their diploma) it was dark. there were bugs. they liked landing on me. then...i got to go stand while people said a lot of stuff. i couldn\'t hear it because someone had put the speakers facing the audience. we clapped. the whole time, even during the name-calling, seniors were playing with silly string and beachballs. afterwards...they turned off the lights. there were lots of fireworks. i wandered around for 20 minutes looking for a cell phone. i called home, and waited another hour for my ride...traffic to the school was one way. i felt sorry for my dad. i am tired...but cannot go to sleep. i\'ll copy and paste this to my site. maybe the longest text ever. you will all suffer as i have suffered when and if you graduate. i cannot feel my feet. i hate dress shoes. I\'m back. Today, I\'m here to salute the Pointless Signs Of America The PSOA have been whole-heartedly working for you, and what have you done for them? NOTHING These so-called \"pointless\" signs are doing just what they were meant to do: entertain you You cannot judge them simply because they have no apparant function. They expand your mind, making you think about all the things they could do. They could do anything they wanted to, if they just put their minds to it. If you judged everything by what it doesn\'t acomplish, then the entire world is populated by pointless beings. Noone can do everything, so how can you expect a SIGN, with the I.Q. of toilet paper, to do everything. You people sicken me. You expect far to much of the inanimate world. The inanimate world, on the otherhand, expects nothing of you. Which is exactly what it gets. If you expect nothing, and get nothing, you feel nothing. If you expect nothing and get something, you\'re happy. But, if you expect something and get something you feel nothing. And if you expect something and get nothing, you feel cheated. If you\'re following along, and not completly confused, you\'ll realize that it is better to be a pessimist than an optomist. Yep that\'s right. This entry went from saluting the PSOA to making a statement about my ideals. This has been a weird day. You can thank my associate \"Meg\" she came up with the PSOA acronym. Everyone, clap for \"Meg\".I gotta go...seeya later I\'m finnaly back Today, I took a long look at this site, which is the acomplishment of almost a year of work. And I asked myself \"How could I have better spent my time?\" And so, in the interest of wasting even more time, I made a list. Here we go Number One: I could have cured cancer. Not that I know anything about medicine...or cancer for that matter. But I\'m sure that if I just would have put my mind to it, I could have done it. Number Two: I could helped the earth to find eternal and lasting peace. Which would be boring. So I at least have an excuse for not doing that. Number Three: I could have studied and stuff. Uh...don\'t think so...Number Four: I could have learned to drive. This would have resulted in the deaths of numerous pedistrians...and I would still probably be wondering around in search of a McDonalds. Number Five: I could have read more books, played more video games and watched more mindless television. Gee...I wish I\'d thought of that sooner. Number Six: I could have implemented one of several plans for world domination. Or, as an alternative, I could have ruined several plans for world domination that other people made. Number Seven: I could drive people crazy. Wait...aren\'t I already doing that? Scratch number seven. And on to: Number Eight: I could have...uhhhh...ummmmm...actually thought up these things before hand. Number Nine: Now it\'s just getting redundant, isn\'t it? Number Ten: This is the list that never ends. Yes, it goes on and on my friend. One person, started typing it not knowing what it was, and they\'ll continue typing it forever just because this is the list that never ends, yes it goes on and on my friends, some person started typing it not...etc, etc. Okay...I admit it. I have officialy run out of ways I could have better spent my time. I don\'t think there actually are any. Except for maybe five and six. Now, those have possibilities. However, I am currently content to just sit here and type. For the benefit of you, the reader...who may or may not exist. Either way, I\'m continuing to sort of entertain myself. I feel like I should be outraged about some topic or another. I just can\'t work up the energy to be outraged. Perhaps a nice, soothing mistrust. Yeah. I can work with mistrust. I definitly mistrust lots of stuff. Like organ grinders, and the evil conspiracies. Did you know, that Kodak was part of the conspiracy to assasinate John F. Kennedy. Now, some of you are probably thinking \"Gee, Really?\", or \"Wow, I never knew that \" while others are thinking \"Who\'s John F. Kennedy?\" or possibly \"Who or What is Kodak\". I fervently hope that you\'re not thinking the last two...especially about Kodak. Kodak, as you may know, is a film developing company. And John F. Kennedy (JFK) was an alien bent on global domination. Or possibly a really good president who wanted to fly to the moon. Either way, he got assasinated. And ever loony in America decided that it was a conspiracy. Some even go so far as to claim that Kodak \"changed\" the pictures of the assasination to make an assasination in the bushes become a tree\'s shadow. I didn\'t know that they had such good technology back then. I have to wonder...why would Kodak do such a thing. Perhaps Kodak is actually a front organization for a shadowy governmental system that controls the entire world and didn\'t want mankind to obtain the freedom of the stars and so tried to sabotauge the space program even though it didn\'t work as well as they planned. Or perhaps not. Either way, Kodak is undeniably evil. How can any company that takes so many \"wholesome\" pictures not be? You can just bet that they look at every one that get\'s turned in to them, judging blackmail value, and whether or not you could get arrested. It\'s just sickening, you can\'t even take a simple photo nowadays. Unless you have a digital camera, which are a symbol of freedom from the old ways and willing enslavement to the new ways. We can only hope that the digital camera manufacturers are kinder masters than the evil Kodak Lords. I better go...I think Kodak is tracing my site....I\'m back now And, once again, I have proof that someone actually took the time (two hours) to read this entire Longest Text Ever It\'s amazing, it\'s incredible, it\'s unbelievable. But true. Even more incredible, this time it\'s someone I don\'t even know Wooooooo I feel inspired and happy and other really good emotions and stuff. And so, I\'ll take a trip down memory lane, to the dark depths of the past, to when I decided to make this page. It was inspired, in part, by my sheer and utter boredom. In school, back before I even owned a computer, I\'d type random words for long periods of time, \'cause I had nothing better to do. Once I got this computer, I decided to do something similar on my beloved site. But, it ended up making more sense than I anticipated (scary thought, huh). Oh, well...I tired of nostalgia. Back to the present. Right now, I\'m just typing so that no one can say that I\'ve been slacking off. I don\'t think I have any conspiracy theories...except pop-ups/pop-unders. Have you ever had the evil pop-up that says that if you click here, it\'ll get rid off all the annoying pop-ups? Isn\'t that sort of ironic? Could the pop-up blocker people have chosen a better means to advertise their product? It\'s like grand-theft auto 3\'s talk show, you know, the one where there are Citizens Raging Against Phones? Or CRAP, for short. And the lady representing them, calls the radio station...on a phone. It\'s stupid and ironic and just shouldn\'t exist in a better world. Pop-Up ad\'s help you get rid of pop-up ads? Insane, chaotic...hmmmmm...I wonder who thought of it? Was it on purpose, or was it just some mistake? It is now my civic duty to discover this ancient mystery, and reveal it to the uncaring world. Or maybe I\'ll go make a frozen pizza. Yeah. That sounds good, too. Since I\'m not particualarly inspired at the moment, I should leave and let you gather what is left of your sanity. I just can\'t seem to stop, though. Okay...I can do it. I\'m leaving. I\'m back...and it\'s several hours later. I\'ve decided to imortalize the stupidity of my dog, Moose. She is a heavy-set Yorkshire Terrior (12 lbs.) In otherwords, she\'s a small yappy dog who is big for her breed. Today, I met her arch-enemy. An enemy so terrifying that Moose cannot stop shaking. An enemy so hideous that Moose must destroy it at all costs. An enemy so dangerous that Moose fears it above all others. Now you may be wondering what horrible beast is Moose\'s arch-enemy. And you probably suspect that it is something pathetic. You would be correct in your suspiciousness...for Mooses arch-enemy is...*dramatic drumroll*...a small, white, feather. Now, Moose has seen many feathers, birds even. But none have struck terror in her little moose heart like this particular feather. So...naturally I put her arch-enemy in my pocket and brought it home with me. This action has made her very suspicious of where my loyalties lie. She tracks the feather smell all over the house, and goes crazy whenever I take it out of my pocket. She even got her sister and mother in the spirt of things. Now her sister sounds an alarm whenever she sees the evil feather. Now, you may be wondering what is so terrifying about a small, white, feather. So am I. It doesn\'t smell funny, (I asked my brother, since I don\'t have a sense of smell), it seems perfectly ordinary. So, I\'ve decided that Moose works for some secret government organization, and that the feather is the key to the destruction of the world, and I am just blithely letting it enter our home, so that it may furthur its evil plans to destroy the universe. That is the only possible explanation as to why it upsets her so much. Or...maybe it\'s the feather off of the cartoon owl from the tootsie-roll pop comercials (one...two...three..*crunch*). Whatever the case, I decided that the whole world, (or three of four random people) deserve to know that if the world and or universe are destroyed, it\'s the evil, little, white, feather\'s fault. Now I\'d better go and torture my Moose with it...:) I am officially back. And you, the potentially non-existant reader gets a once in a lifetime chance to hear me rant and rave about my Horrible, Horrible Family Vacation. I know. You feel very, very honored. It\'s like this. My mother is a control freak, and she decided on the spur of the moment that we were going north to visit relatives. Later that day, she decided we were NOT going north, we were going south to a beach resort. Still later that day, she got offended at some trivial thing and decided that we weren\'t going anywhere at all. The very next day, she decided that we were going north, after all. So, we packed everthing up. Before we knew it, we were on the road. The first part of the trip was fairly easy. As in, I was half-asleep, hoping that we\'d arrive while I slept. Then, in an inspired move, my brother talked my mother into letting him sit up front. That meant that my mother would be in the back, with me and my younger, eviler sister. Immediatly, my mother started complaining. It was uncomfortable in the back, it was too hot, it was too cold. Then, she accidently woke our three yappy dogs up, and they relized that they were in a car. That meant only one corse of action for them. They started shaking and barked their little heads off. This annoyed my mother further, untill she asked, no, demanded that my father turn the car around so that we could go home. Unfortuantly, we had already driven 337 miles toward our destination. After much argument, my father was going to turn around, untill he realized that my mother was going to drop the dogs and me off, and then turn around and continue north. This seemed slightly unpracticle, so we ended up not taking that 337 mile detour. We eventually reached our destination after 16 hours of virtually non-stop driving. We got there, we ate. We slept. My mother visited relatives. And so the week went by. I got to go to a huge library, and see Terminator 3 at the local theater. That was the high point of the entire trip. The last day, we were deciding where to eat. My mom said that she didn\'t care. So my dad picked a steak place. My mother tried to order a mushroom-swiss burger...only to discover that the place had no swiss-cheese. So she decided on a salad, only to discover that they didn\'t have her favorite salad dressing. After much deliberation, she decided that she wouldn\'t eat. After complaining how hungry she was, and about the poor quality of the resteraunt, she walked out of the resteraunt, instructing the rest of us to \"enjoy our meals\". And I wonder where my little sister gets her annoyingness. Not that my mother is annoying...just set in her ways. The whole meal thing was about the only interesting thing to happen during the week. On the way home, we had gotten approximatly 4 hours into the trip when my mother predicatably decided that we had to go back and eat at the 50th aniversary of her favorite ice cream place. Needless to say, we ignored her. Oh, and when my sister had to go to the bathroom very badly during a traffic jam, my mother had the good taste to making hissing/water noises to make my sister\'s problem worse. She claimed that my little sister always did it to her, and she was getting pay-back. Between her bickering with my sister, and obsessivly playing neopets games, I don\'t know what to do with her. Anyway...that was my family vacation rant. It sucked. No suprise. At least it\'s over. Sorry if I complained a lot. If you don\'t like it, start your own longest text ever. Anyway, I promise to go back to my usual routine the next time I rant here. I thought of a topic on the way home, but forgot it. Seeya. I\'m back I know, I took you completly by suprise. You thought you\'d gotten rid of me. *cheesy super-hero voice* Well, fear not, random citizen, for I, PSOPC am here *normal voice* Today I have a very important to discuss with you in this: PERFECTLY NORMAL PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCMENT. Yes, that\'s right. It\'s time to warn you, the viewer...er...reader...about the evils of various stuff. Today\'s lesson is: subliminal messages . That\'s right, folks, mass hypnosis via commercials. Now, I\'m sure you\'ve at least heard of subliminal messages , right? No? Well...prepare to be enlightened. Subliminal messages are an advertising technique that puts hidden pictures and words into a main image. You don\'t see them, but your subconsious (dreaming) mind does. Your subconsious mind acts on whatever it is told. What does this mean to you? It means that WAL-MART TV IS EVIL EVIIIIIIIIIIIIL Why else would they invest all that money to show commercials in their own store? Because they put subliminal messages in them, of course Subliminal messanging also explains the successes of certain fast-food resteraunts, and brand name items. BEWARE YOUR TOASTER OVEN Okay. That had nothing to do whatsoever with subliminal messages...it\'s just cool to say. Anyway, only watch wal-mart if you WANT to be subliminaly entertained into purchasing a new set of TUPERWARE, even though your old set is PERFECTLY fine. This has been a public service announcment. Pretty cool, huh? Uh...you don\'t have to take the subliminal stuff seriously. It\'s true, and all, but I have no proof about wal-mart, or certain fast food resteraunts. It makes sense, though. Wal-mart TV is evil. You cannot deny it. Seeya...hmmm..I wonder if there\'s subliminal stuff in my computer...I\'m back. And I feel that it\'s time for a FAKE commercial break, for the highly informed, obviously brain-dead consumer. And now, a word from our non-existant sponsor. Ketchup: The only food that you\'ll want to eat after traveling to the 5th Dimension. It\'s been practically proven that Ketchup transforms into a highly intoxicating (non-addictive) delicious substance upon returning from the 5th Dimension. Stock up now with our Valu-Pak to recieve 3-metric tons of Ketchup, all for the low, low price of your brain, since you\'re obviously not using it anyway. Then, just wait for technology to \"catch-up\" (get it, catch-up, Ketchup?)so you can travel to the 5th Dimension like our scientists almost did. (Next Commercial) Get ready fo: Faux\'s new \"reality\" TV show, \"How Low Can We Go?\" It\'s about six contestants who compete to create the worst, least likely \"reality\" TV show. The winner not only gets the million-dollar prize, they get the chance to produce the show they created. Remember: if the show sucks, it\'s their fault, not ours (Next exciting commercial )And for all the idiots out there: Try new and improved Dum-B-Gon Dum-B-Gon stimulates brain activity, making you up to 10 times smarter Not only that, Dum-B-Gon: stimulates weight loss, cures \"any\" illness, does simple houshold chores, never leaves the toilet seat up and is the perfect gentle companion for your kids. How can you pass up this revolutionary new product? It\'s yours for only 3 bi-monthly payments of $3.95 ($3,95,000 on days ending in \"y\")Don\'t forget, Dum-B-Gon is practically guaranteed * (*Not a guarantee) (Next commercial)Have you ever wondered why food sometimes goes bad in your fridge, even if you\'ve only had it a few years? It\'s because of the \"evil little faeries with sharp little teeth.\" These \"faeries\" sprinkle your food with highly toxic \"age dust\" and ruin a perfectly good four-year-old meatloaf. How do you stop them? With our patented \"spray\". Our \"spray\" kills over 99.9% of \"faeries\" (which are much to small to see) Our \"spray\" also kills most disease causing agents, like rats, or pigeons. WARNING: Leave food sit in an open, well-venilated spot for a week before eating. And now, back to our featured presentation. Wasn\'t that semi-entertaining? I bet you wanna go eat some Ketchup covered Dum-B Gon right now, while watching \"reality\" TV. Just make sure you \"spray\" your food first. Pathetic, wasn\'t it? Oh, well. I was bored, and a dilligent reader suggested I make fake commercials, so...therer they are. Happy? Good. I\'m leavin\', for now. I\'m back. And I\'m willing to enlighten you, the potentially you-know-what reader. Today, I was checking out some weird news. At one point, I read an article that stated that it had been proven, conclusivly, that Kansas was flatter than the standard pancake. The researches even used highly advanced technololgy to map the su
line, (line111@gmail.com), 25.09.2011 - 05:24
Build your own FREE website at Angelfire.com Share: del.icio.us | digg | reddit | Twitter | facebook THE LONGEST TEXT EVER(I think) Advertise your LTE | Click here | Back to Main Site Table Of Contents (read left to right) Introduction Weird Poem Thing Press Refresh to Escape No one comes here Spooky Quizzes This is getting long. Grape Pie and Organ Grinders Frustration Code: 343 of OFCHB People hate reading. People actually READ this? Evil Cartoon Owls... Rhetorical Questions Code: 472 of OFCHB Love, Joy, and Insane Chaos. TACO-2 Code 742: of OFCHB Family Trip to: A Bar. Farewell loyal reader. Next Generation is DOOMED Weird Sibling and Dead Stuff. Code: 843 of OFCHB More people READ this? Ice Cream Trucks Matrix: Reloaded EVIL dress/ Code: 666 Evil Graduation Pointless Signs of America What else could I have done? JFK conspiracies Memories Moose\'s arch-enemy Horrible Family Vacation Subliminal Messages Fake Commercials Vast Breakfast Food Conspiracy It\'s good to be weird. Sugar Rushed Evils of Tanning Lazy Calculators Squirell\'s Arch-Enemy Not fair Random, Vast Conspiracy Code: 888 of OFCHB The Joys of Gambling Cheeze-Its The Armadillo Episode... Evils of Smoke Dectectors. Need...Sleep... Healthy Competition OFC Lunar Colony \"Pure\" Water Vast Puddle of Knowledge Code: 452 of OFCHB Super-Secret Message Real Grape Pie? Vicious Downward Spiral Imaginary Squirell Money Hypothetical Conversation Life Biscuits Fashion...and stuff. Infinite Possibilities \"Meg\" commercial The Asparagus Wars Santa is EVIL. Guest Rant (PSOCB) Opposite Day Evil Family \"Bonding\" Road Kill Adventures Mary Had a Little Lamb New Format... Wal-Mart is EVIL Horrible Sorority Evil French Fries and \"It\" Here comes Elvis Sugar Rushed 2: The Sequel PSOPC Bot and Strange Thoughts Evil K-Mart... Duck, Duck Goose (Guest Rant) \"Meg\":Barbies Reality TV No Brakes Tons of Fun Aunt Jemima and Quaker Oats Warranties....mwa-ha-ha It\'s incredible There are things down here I\'d never even dreamed of I\'m gonna try and blow it up. Police Dispatch Hello, everyone This is one of the weirdest sites: or your money back We have ZIM, neopets, music, and much, much, more. E-mail us for questions, comments, complaints and information. Why not click on the Very Weird Stuff link to see more, or click on the music link? We have halloween and christmas pictures on the NeoPics link. Cheese is not a wild thing Now I have decided to go for a world record. I will try to make the longest web page ever, made completely out of text Won\'t that be fun? I will just type, and type, and never, ever use copy and paste. Wow...I really must be bored. Just goes to show what boredom can do to you. Any way, that\'s it for now. Wait, no it isn\'t, I still have to keep going, and going, and going. Because I do. THE REST OF THE STUFF I TYPE WILL BE COMPLETLY IN CAPS JUST BECAUSE I CAN. THAT IS ALL. SEEYA Hi, I\'m back. So far this is nowhere near the world record. I think. I don\'t exactly know where it is...oh, well. I\'ll just have to do the very best that I can. No one is really coming here, anyway. So it doesn\'t matter. By the way, TAB is a worthwhile, community-service organization. The form link is to a 100% fake TAB registration form that you can fill out just for laughs. I can\'t believe I\'m bothering to do this. I have very low expectations of my site. None ever comes here, I could do this all day long and I still wouldn\'t have any more hits. This is just a pointless excursive in spelling errors and grammatical imprecision. May your day be shiney The following is an extremely weird poem-thingy that I wrote when I was in a relatively weird mood: never mind that noise my dear can anyone pass the cheese only if you say pretty please oh, boy do I have to sneeze. why must everyone always rhyme, why I’m a poet and don’t I know it? what I fear comes right after here not this life or the next will I ever be able to pass the test? we’re stuck in here, (alone my dear) and we’ll problem never get out so don’t start to shout. it’s dark and I want to go home is where the heart was where is it now? we’ll never know but oh crap it’s starting to snow and it’s time to show and tell about the well that you found last summer at camp when it was damp it was near the ramp oh god why must this be I liked that tree but now it’s gone, farewell so long I’ll miss you as long as you write but then I’m afraid to say good-night. my dear there’s nothing to fear that’s only a box that’s made of blocks next to the wagon that looks like a dragon why are you shaking it’s your fear that is making you shiver and act all a quiver. don’t you know that you only need be afraid of fear and never anything here and certainly not a post that acts like a ghost? See, very weird. At least it fills up my word q uota for the day. Not that I exactly have a word q uota for the day. It just sounded very professional to say it. Anyway, I still don\'t think that anyone is actually coming here. You\'d have to be an absolute loser (or really bored) to come here. I\'d probley come here, but that isn\'t much of a surprise. After all, I\'ve been to the Really Really Big Button That Doesn\'t Do Anything website over 50 times. Pathetic. But, whatever. As long as I\'m happy, right. Humor the crazy person, okay? Oh, guess what? According to someone you problem don\'t know, this is the second most pointless website ever Next to the Really Big Button, of course. I feel special. Come on everyone, group hug. Okay, now I\'m starting to scare myself...I\'m gonna quit for today. Seeya. Now I\'m back. Is this getting confusing to you? Too bad. Now I want you to go to http://quiz.ravenblack.net/blood.pl?biter eon\" If you do this I\'ll get points in the game. Come on all you non-existing people Help me You know you want to It\'s a worthy cause Honestly, the more time I waste playing the game, the less time I\'ll work on this site and the less stuff you gotta read. Although why you\'d be here if you didn\'t want to read is beyond me. Maybe you\'re lost. Okay, if you want to get out, click the little refresh button, okay? Good...what? You say it didn\'t let you out? Oh, well. You must be caught in a time warp. Keep pressing it. Maybe you\'ll break free. What\'s that. The little counter at the bottom keeps going up? Never mind. That\'s just how many times you have to click before you can leave. Good-bye. Hey, I\'m once again: back. I don\'t suppose you fell for that little thing about the refresh button. After all, you\'re a responsible, intelligent person who apparently has a lot of time on your hands. Well, you can\'t possibly have more time than I do. I mean, after all, I made this site. You\'re only browsing it. And most people don\'t even come here. Not even my friends...*sniffle* The just ignore this poor, pathetic little page. All they do is fill out the TAB form and leave. I think. Maybe they\'re here right now HI HOW ARE YOU DOING? I\'M FINE THANKS FOR COMING YES, I\'M YELLING Who am I kidding. This page won\'t get a single hit, unless I bribe people...now that has possibilities. Okay, fill out the TAB form, so I have proof that you bothered to come here and...uh...I\'ll...uh...send you a sandwich? Please allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. I\'m bored. I\'m gonna go hug a moose. MOOSE I love-d you moose Hey, I\'m back again Yea...*waits for applause* okay Now I want all you loyal fans...*cricket chirps* to go to the link to see what I\'m like. I took a whole bunch of personality quizzes and posted them there. I\'m an evil villain, kitty and a freakazoid so far. And I only took the quiz once, too. Spooky how accurate they are...anyway, I command you to go I\'m going. I\'m back. I\'m gonna start counting how many times I say back. Let\'s see: 1...2...3...4...5 Wow. I must really be desperate for something to do. I now officially have proof that someone has been here It was one of my friends. Apparently this page really is getting long, because my friend said something to that effect. Maybe. Anyway, moving on I\'m just basically typing nothing. Just like all those reports people have to do. You know? With a specific number of words. They start out with half that number, and then just fill in words until they have the right amount. I salute those people. You\'re great tradition is being carried out here, on the second most pointless site ever Well. Maybe eventually some weird, bored person will wander onto my site on accident and be mildly entertained be my site until they wander onto a live video feed of a coffee maker. Or maybe not. I only know that I\'m entertaining me, which was my original goal. So. I\'ve done what I\'ve set out to accomplish. Yea, me I\'m so special. You see, most people, they don\'t like reading or writing. So if you\'re not most people, you\'ve made it down this far without skipping, skimming or getting the spark notes version. (Which I think does not exist) My point is, if you\'ve bothered to read this, then, (like me) you probley have also read the ketchup bottle so many times that you have it down verbatim. Look verbatim up. It\'s a word. But, you should know that, since you like reading. Or maybe you\'re just skimming. Anyway, there\'s nothing wrong with reading food labels. You might be asked a question about them on a quiz show. And now, for the million-dollar question: How many calories are there in a single serving of Mustard? I can just see it now...It could be called Know-Your-Food. Or You are What you Eat. It\'d probley be as popular as those game shows that no one\'s ever heard of. Speaking of food, what\'s up with pie? There\'s strawberry pie, apple, pumpkin and so many others, but there is no grape pie I know. I\'m just as upset about this unfortunate lack of development in the pie division. Think about it. Grapes are used to make jelly, jam, juice and raisins. What makes them undesirable for pie? Would they dry into raisins? Couldn\'t you just stick some jelly in a piecrust and bake it? It just doesn\'t make any sense. Another thing that bothers me is organ grinders. You know, the foreign guys with the bellhop hats and the little music thingy and the cute little monkey with the bellhop hat who collects the money? Okay. They\'re basically begging on the street. How did they ever afford an organ-thingy? Wouldn\'t it make more sense to get a kazoo, if you\'re broke? And if they\'re so poor, what possessed them to buy a monkey? I mean, I don\'t think I could afford a monkey, and I\'m not exactly on the streets. Obviously I at least have a computer...so, back to the organ grinders. I would have sold the monkey and the organ and been able to eat for at least a year. Or, if I was weirder than I am, I could at least kill the monkey with the organ and eat it. Why on earth did they keep the monkey? It must have cost a fortune to feed...not to mention the mess. That\'s just one of those many facts of life that are better left mysteries. Especially since no one but me would ask the question. I better go. I think I hear a monkey...Okay...now I\'m back. That\'s the sixth time I\'ve said back I realize that this longest text ever must be very boring and not worth anyone\'s time. But I\'d like to take this time to thank the 2 and 1/2 people in the entire universe who have bothered to read this entire thing. I\'m not exactly sure who they are, but: thanks Right now, my spacebar is malfunctioning...that\'s not good...I have to press it two or three times just to insert a freaking space. Maybe the evil little faeries with the sharp little teeth have put their evil faerie dust on my computer. Or maybe not. This is too frustrating. Goodbye for now...Now I\'m back. And still frustrated. But for a different reason. Today I had the misfortune of playing a Treasure Planet game on neopets.com It was terrible. Apparently the point of the game was to get your character to shout \"Whoo-Hoo \" as many times as possible before you splattered your brains on the rocks, all the while listening to a soundtrack that is similar to a dying ceiling fan. Of course, when I started out I accidentally hit the rocks approximately three million times. Halfway though I used my four remaining brain-cells to decide that the game was dumb. So my goal changed from surviving to laughing evilly while my character died. So the game naturally did everything it could to preserve my life. The stupid game is still going on and I refuse to quit because I want my points. My character is actually dodging the stupid rocks better now then when I controlled him. I hate irony. Seeya. Okay. Now I\'m back again. Today I added an update page, which is basically a less chaotic, outlined version of this without all the ranting. It\'s more like techno talk about arrays and how much I suck and whether or not the Braves will win this year. Okay, the whole braves thing is made up. But everything else I\'ve said so far is true. I think. Maybe I should start on a boring disclaimer...Eh-hem. All contents of this site were designed for entertainment purposes only. Any use thereof that is not stated in the above mentioned statement would make the author, hereby referred to as Patron Saint of Paper Clips, very angry. Should you violate the purpose of this site: i.e. become not entertained, the Patron Saint of Paper Clips will be forced to take drastic measures. This is specified in Code: 343 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook. Ooooo…that’s a great idea I’m gonna start q uoting from the Flaming Chicken Handbook Code: 343 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook states that the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (that’s me) is allowed to cause vague, pain like sensations while the offending person (or alien life form, dog, etc.) isn’t paying attention. Now I have a purpose in life To make up q uotes from the non-existent Flaming Chicken Handbook, which I’m sure you have a copy of. No? Too bad. It’s in the mail, I promise Now I must take my leave…and remember. Cheese is watching. Okay...I\'m back...I think that eventually half of this thing will consist of the word back over and over again...that\'s just weird. Which fits the motif of the rest of the site. There\'s even a money back guarantee. Isn’t\' that nice? See? Now no one can ever say that I don\'t take care of my viewers. Especially since I don\'t have viewers. I have readers. Wait...I really don\'t even know if anyone bothers to read this. Even if I put it in a less chaotic, more user-friendly format people would still ignore this because it involves: reading. Yes. Sad to admit, but the majority of people would rather read the summary at the back of a book rather than the whole book itself. What has the world come to? It\'s pathetic. Especially since I\'m bothering to write all this. It\'s not fair Why can\'t I have more readers? All the other internet writers have nothing on me, except they\'re better at advertising, having a central theme/plot and basically more talented. Whereas I\'m more into the whole ranting and raving stage right now. Plus, I am horrible at spelling. Which is bad. Thank the powers that be for spell-check. The single greatest invention of the computer gods. I\'m getting bored, so I think I\'m done for the day. May your day be shiney I\'m back again And I feel weird I found at that yet another one of my friends is reading this. Creepy. Just how much time do they have on their hands. Perhaps their just trying to be nice. I can just see it now...an organization devoted not to feeding the hungry, or peace, or love or whatever, but to giving recognition to all those poor, pathetic, unpopular websites. I wonder what it\'s name would be. Don\'t Ignore Sites? Would it be called DIS? Isn\'t that like a slang term for an insult? Would that be considered poetic justice, or just a nice coincidence? And why do I even care? I\'ll tell you why. Because I have nothing else to do right now. I could be playing neopets, but ever since my bad experience with Treasure Planet, I don\'t feel like it. Oh, by the way, I noticed that whenever I use spell-check, my stupid computer turns the word probley into to word problem. To prevent this, I did nothing. So, it is now up to you, the imaginary reader, to decide whether I mean probley or problem...it\'s almost like a game But without the bad sound track. And I promise not to force you to live when you would rather die. Moving on, I have nothing else to say, but don\'t feel like quitting just yet. I\'m like the little engine that could. Or maybe the Energizer Bunny. I just keep going, and going and going. Or I could be like that annoying guy on T.V. who keeps asking if you can hear him. If my site manages to last a decade, my readers *snicker* will probley wonder what I\'m talking about. My answer is simple. It doesn\'t matter. I\'m just rambling. Which means that it doesn\'t matter if you understand anything I say. Doesn\'t that make you feel better? I bet it does. Wow. Look how long this has gotten. I even impress myself. Who would have thought I have this much free time? And I congratulate any reader who has gotten this far. Ooooooo You must check out the fortunes section of the random stuff page I\'ve just gotten an idea for some more, original, fortunes...I gotta go (may the moose be with you) And now I am back. I swear. If iI fill out the fake tab form I\'m gonna have to put back as my favorite word...I already have filled it out, though. Would it be cheating to fill it out again? Only if I had multiple personalities. Or would it be cheating if I didn\'t have multiple personalities? The world may never know. Just like how many licks it takes to get to the bottom of a tootsie pop. Would it vary? The number of licks, I mean. Someone could have super-disolving spit, or watery-spit. Or what if you took big ol\' slobbery licks? Does the commercial take that into account? No. It doesn\'t. And let me tell you, it\'s an outrage. It deludes all of American\'s sweet, innocent, candy-loving children into thinking that a cartoon owl is smarter than they are \"Mr. Owl, can you tell us how many licks does it take to get to the bottom of a tootsie pop?\" Or whatever. And \"Mr. Owl\" replies \"One...Twoo...Three Chomp\" And he bites it. That teaches our youth that it\'s okay to agree to help someone, and then ruin their experiment. Well...it\'s not. I am going to start a protest group. Teens Against Cartoon Owls. We could call ourselves TACO I love the little tacos, I love them good That is a direct q uote from GIR, co-star and comic-relief on INVADER ZIM. Hmmmm...intersting. I put hyphens in both of his titles...it must be a conspiracy I gotta go. Those TACO buttons don\'t make themselves, you know. I\'m back again. And not so cheesed off about the whole tootsie roll pop thing. Right now, I have another twenty minutes on the Internet before I\'m gonna watch T.V. And I can\'t think of anything else to do. So, predictably, here I am. It\'s not like I have anything better to do. Obviously, you know this. After all, look how long this text is. I wonder if I\'ve made the world record? If I did, would I stop this? Why bother asking? I\'ll will most likely still be adding to this on my death bed. Hmmmmm...has any old, senile person ever written anything? Was it coherent? Did it make more sense that this text? Is it possible to make less sense? Am I enjoying asking retorical questions? Yes. Yes, I am. But I seriously wonder what something written by a senile person would be like. I\'ve heard of poems and stuff written by people who were high, insane or paranoid. But never senile. Can a senile person write? Aren\'t they regressed to a child-like state? Does it even matter? Is anyone even reading this? Did I resume asking retorical questions? Do you care? Is this eating up time? I feel like I\'m playing questions only on whose line is it anway. I probley should have capitalized something, or underlined but I\'m feeling lazy...hey, you try to keep your two and a half readers happy It\'s really stressfull. Someday, I\'m gonna snap and just delete this entire thing. Gee, I hope not I worked sorta hard on this. It\'s great for making random topics weave together to form an overall infrastructure of chaos. That made little sense. That\'s why it\'s here, and not some critically acclaimed site. Ooooooooooooo I\'m gonna q uote from the FLAMING CHICKENS HANDBOOK again Yep I bet you were just breathless in anticipation. Okay. Here goes. Code: 472 of the Flaming Chickens Handbook states that this site in no way aknowledges the existance of other, better sites (hereon reffered to as the Losers) The Losers are a myth. The Patron Saint of Paper Clips (me again ) claims no knowledge as to where that particullary nasty rumor started, but confirms that this is the best site ever. It would be a sin against humanity for a better site to exist. Should you refuse to aknowledge the Patron Saint of Paper Clips as the ruler of the Internet, you will be subjected to punishment as stated in Code 343 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook (i.e. Experience vague, pain-like sensations when you\'re not paying attention) This has been a public service announcement. This is a test, I repeat only a test. Had this been an actual emergency, we would have bought up all the can openers and charged 3 cows and a pig for each one. I repeat, lock all you doors and windows, this is it. I repeat, there is nothing to worry about. Everything is fine. The end is not here. I\'m going, you\'re on you\'re own Ahhhhhhhhhh I\'m back *smiles brightly* And apparantly delusional Anyway, I just finished rereading my longest text ever. And I became inspired to talk about nothing. You see, I periodically read the longest text ever to check the constant downward spiral of my sanity. Hmmm...I seem to be entertaining myself though, even while reading what I wrote. Which is why I still go to the Really Really Big Button That Doesn\'t Do Anything website. Because I am easily amused and have lots and lots of time on my hands. Maybe, some day far in the future (like next Thursday) I\'ll print a copy of this insane text. And then go door to door distributing it. Eventually, this would become a monthly tradition. Whole families would gather around their front door, in breathless anticipation while they attempted to barracade me out. I can just see the whole community rising to thwart my attempts to spread love, joy and insane chaos. I probley wouldn\'t actually print this out (think how much paper it would take ) but if I do, only friends and enemies will receive copies. Hmmmm...maybe my condition is worsening. Or not. I\'m still peeved about the cartoon owl from the Tootsie Roll Pop commercials. He is pure evil. TACO will eventually destroy him. Unless he has already been destroyed by an even more radical Anti-Cartoon-Owl group. I hope not. Or, would that be good? I suppose I could let someone else have the glory. After all, I\'m not in this line of buisness for the fame, fortune and power. What line of buisness, do you ask? Why, the assasinating annoying cartoon characters buisness. (Actually I just question them untill they spontaneously combust, I ask lots of questions) So, in conclusion, ladies and gentleman of the jury(that\'s you) I could not have possibly tortured \"Mr. Owl\" to death. I love owls. Hmm...I seem to be jumping from one subject to another more frequently. Either I am growing more comfortable with my on-line writing, or I am progressivly getting more insane and chaotic. I also am psyco-analyzing myself a lot today...hmmmm...I\'m even saying \"hmmmmm...\" a lot. Just like a real psychologist. Hmmmmmmm. Time for another boring disclaimer Code: 742 of the Flaming Chickens Handbook states that in no part does the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (That\'s still me ) actually claim to be mentally ill. That\'s either a) a publicity stunt b) An attempt at humor c) a cry for help or d) none of the above You can e-mail your responses by conducting a scavenger hunt of this site. Some of the pages of this site contain a link encouging the two and a half people to e-mail the Patron Saint of Paper Clips. There may also be evil little links that are designed to confuse you. These links send stuff to someone named johnjones333@hotmail.com The Patron Saint of Paper Clips does not know who this individual is, but sincerly wishes that you send all your hate mail to him. Not that the aformentioned individual claims to have received hate mail (or mail of any kind) via a website link. Thank-you for your time. Remember to send your answers to my sanity quiz to the e-mail account, flamingchickens333@hotmail.com Oh, and once I refer to myself in the first person again, the handbook q uote is over. I just thought that I might like to mention that. Oh. You\'re still here. I figured you rush right on over to e-mail me. Perhaps you don\'t have time to waste e-mailing me. HA HA HA That\'s funny If you you don\'t have time to waste, what are you doing here? Oh, who am I kidding. I figure that even the people I manage to lure onto my site from neopets don\'t even bother to come to this particular page. Maybe I should make the link come here directly...Hey What a good idea That way I can spread my love, joy and insane chaos to more people I\'m a genius. Gotta go, must lure innocent victems to the second most pointless site ever I\'m back. And really angry, and confused. I\'ve always known that I was weird, that\'s always been a given. But now I realize that I am considerably more normal than the rest of my family. Today we had a \"family outing.\" Now, most families will go bowling, or putt-putt golfing. They may go to a resteraunt with an arcarde, or the movies or to a theme park. Not my family No, we got the greatest family outing of all. We got to go to a bar and play pool *waits for readers to become insanely jealous* Yep, that\'s right, a bar with a pool table Not only did we get world class cuisine (under-cooked hotdogs and over-cooked hamburgers), my little sister (age 10) got taught pool by someone I strongly supect is an ex-convict Naturally when it was announced that we\'d be eating dinner in this place, I could hardly contain my excitment(I glared at my mother and asked why we couldn\'t go to Pizza Hut) When we arrived, we were promptly served (after thirty minutes) In the meantime, we played a family game of pool(my parents played while my brother and sister and I watched) After two rousing rounds, our food came. The food was superb, (our food came the exact opposite of how we ordered it, and half of the onion rings were missing) Then we joyfully returned to our game(my sister and the ex-con played my mom) We spent hours there (from 5p.m.-7:15p.m.) There were many people that were the same age as me and my siblings (no one in the room but us were under 30) Us kids had to be dragged kicking and screaming from the bar ( I almost fell asleep during the last game I watched) As we left, there was a feeling of goodwill and fellowship between all(my sister locked me out of the car and wouldn\'t let me in untill I started yelling profanity in her general direction) The high point of the entire night was when my mother gave me $21 for my report card. She promptly borrowed $1 to help with the waitresses tip(This part I\'m not being sarcastic about) All in all it was a night I\'ll remember forever (as the lowest point in \"family outing\"history, except for that time my mom dragged me to a church thing on the concept of truth.) My brother(age 13) even decided upon a new job he wants when he\'s old enough to work, a busboy at the bar. We had to tell him that he would probley have to wait untill he was 21.(Absolutly nothing about that statement was sarcastic) As you can see, I love my families outings(Not unless you\'re blind...or stupid) # #% (*%$ WHAT THE %$#@ WAS MY MOTHER $#$#%$# THINKING ???? BRINGING $#$$# KIDS IN A BAR ? I know it was her idea, \'cause my dad hates it, too. My mom and my stupid little 10-year old sister loves it, though. *sighs* Why does my life have to be so weird? I\'m leaving...now I\'m back And not so pissed at my weird family. Now is the time to mourn the loss of one of my most loyal readers (I think she\'s read the entire thing one time, which is more than anyone else has done so far) She has been banned from accesing any portion of the Internet, do to reasons that must remain confidental due to security reasons. If I told you, I\'d have to kill you and all that stuff. So...now I am down to one and a half readers. Untill such time that I have more. I wonder why anyone would read this? You would have to have several characteristics that I possess. First of all, you\'d have to have an extrodinary amount of free time. Second of all, you would have to have the patience to read through all of this. And lastly, you\'d have to know where the heck this site is. I admit it. I haven\'t exactly advertised this site. Nor can I find it on any search engines. Some of my pages have stuff written in to make search engines recognize me, but it doesn\'t seem to be working. What must I do to rise above obscurity? I tell people I know about this site, but they either ignore this page, or don\'t even bother coming to the site in the first place. I suppose that is the bane of all authors. To pour your heart and soul into a passage, and have everyone ignore it. *sniffle* Why must this be? Maybe I should just give up. After all, no one would really care if I quit updating this site. But I can\'t help but think of stuff like the evil over lord list and REALLY REALLY BIG BUTTON THAT DOESN\'T DO ANYTHING. They are not great neccesarily because of the content, (although that helps some) they are great because of their sheer length. You can read a little each day. And almost never finish. Also, I guess I still am trying to get the world record. I have heard some feedback suggesting that I make someway for people to remember where they stopped reading. It can be very confusing, especially if you weren\'t paying attention in the first place. Well, I dont want to organize this page, in any manner. This is chaos. And insanity. Not neat little text in classifiable rows, in alphabetical order. If you want neat, go to some other site(though, as mentioned in Flaming Chickens Code:472 there is no such thing as a site better than this one). Otherwise, I guess you\'re stuck with me. Awwwww...I\'m touched You didn\'t run screaming to another site, thankfull for the chance to escape this insanity. You\'re still here, which must mean that you\'d rather be here than anywhere else Hey, where are you going? I thought you were gonna stay here and keep me company? *drags reader back* See, I knew you\'d stay *gagged reader glares* What\'s that? I know this is the best site ever, thanks for the compliment *reader starts inching towards freedom* I better go...I think that I may have a problem brewing. I\'m back. And very concerned about this new, younger generation (all 10 year olds who were born in 1992) They are supposed to be the future. Instead they appear to be a nuclear armagedon in the form of a fifth grader. I chanced to have an interview with an informant from this evil generation (my little sister) who will be called Mrs. X for security reasons (no, she\'s not married, the \"Mrs\" makes it good as a disguise) I was quizing Mrs. X on Civil War History for an upcoming test in her classroom (whose location can not be devulged) Mrs. X seemed fluent in the subject. Using prior knowledge, I deduced that Mrs. X was full of crap. Out of sheer curiosity, I asked Mrs. X who participated in the Civil War. She immediatly replied \"Clara Barton\". I clarified, which countries fought in the Civil War. She answered: England, Russia, and (out of sheer desperation) Iraq. I believe that she was just listing countries she knows America has fought against. Now, correct me if I\'m wrong...but Iraq? I don\'t know if Iraq even existed in the Civil War Era Why on earth would we go have way across the world to fight them when we didn\'t even really need oil? Moving on, I finaly managed to coax my sister (I\'m tired of writing Mrs. X) to tentativly guess that America fought in the Civil War. I mean, who\'d a thought? America? Fighting in the American Civil War? In a moment of inspiration, I asked her who America fought. Her first guess was enslaved africans. Well, at least she knows that slaves were involved in the war. Before she could start listing all of America\'s enemies, I gave her a hint. I said \"The Union fought...\" With a crack, snaple and pop, some random synapses in her brain connected in the right order and she said \"CONFEDERACY \" I was very proud of her, just as you would be proud of a two-year-old who has just announced: \"I WENT POO-POO ON THE POTTY \" What I mean is, you wouldn\'t be very proud if the average person said that they just took a dookey on the toilet, and you wouldn\'t be very proud if they knew who fought against the Union in the Civil War. I confirmed that the Union was Northern and Free, and that the Confederacy was Southern and Slave. We resumed quizzing and she got every question on the worksheet correct. This is because she memorizes the questions. That way, she can pass the test without actually learning anything. You see, if you memorize stuff, you only have to remember that the answer to number 6 is Clara Barton for a week, rather than having to remember that Clara Barton started the Red Cross for the rest of you life. I sincerely appologize if anyone is offended by my view of memorization. I also would like such persons to immediatly leave my site. You don\'t belong here. You see...knowledge is good. If my sister...uh...Mrs. X were ever asked a question on the Civil War on a quiz show, she\'d come up with nothing. With knowledge you can win money and the opportunity to look like a dork on national television. My sister is a big believer in the memorization system. I previous time when I was studying with her (American Revolution, this time) I was trying to help her remember the difference between the Patriots(Patriotic to America) and the Loyalists (Loyal to Britain) She didn\'t know what the word patriotic meant. I tried to explain. I asked her how you dress on the forth of july (she said nice) I asked what the colors red, white and blue were (pretty). I gave up in exasperation. More recently, I was trying to instill a sense of empathy and niceness in her. I asked her what the golden rule of christianity was. She didn\'t know. When I pressed her, she confessed she didn\'t know what chrisianity was. Completly defeated, I told her that it was the religion she practiced every Sunday when she went with her friends to church. This confirmed my suspicion that she only went so that she could have the use of the church\'s playground equipment. My family also strongly suspects that she stole $20 from the donation thingy. Anyway, that\'s my rant on the new generation that contains my little sister. When someone of her generation runs for president, I\'m gonna do a complete background check. If they\'re anything like my sister, I\'m movin\' to Canada. Gotta go...the Russian-Brittish-Iraqi-enslaved-Africans are coming to defeat the Mexicans. I\'m back *there\'s that darn cricket again* And I have a genuine question to ask all of my loyal readers *cough-cough* Okay, here it is: Is it normal for a non-gender specific sibling to carry around various dead reptiles (snakes, turtles, lizards etc.) Furthormore, is it considered accepted behavior to talk to these dead reptiles, in a cooey, baby talky kind of voice? Finnaly, is it expected for said sibling\'s non-gender specific parent to encourage such behavior, citing \"I was just like that as a child\" as an excuse? It\'s an honest question as I fear that my non-gender specific sibling is weird. Who am I kidding? My entire family is weird. It\'s just a matter of degree. Hey, by the way. I\'m sorry that my last few entries have been only about my various family antics. Although I can\'t see why you care, because there is a large probability that you do not exist, because I don\'t think anyone is reading this anymore. How discouraging. People need to make the time to waste time. It\'s a time honored tradition. Who\'d thought that I could use time that many times in only a few sentences? It\'s been pretty quiet here lately, which is why I haven\'t added anything to this text in awhile. I know, you were just crushed that nothing new was happening. It\'s a sad, cold, cruel world out there and you had nothing to relieve the monotony of it. *sniffle* I feel so sorry for you Next thing you know, you\'re internet connection will die. Well, too bad Do you know I never even had a computer untill just a few months ago (that\'s why I\'m obsessivly writing here) So I won\'t pity you if you\'re computer dies for unexpected reasons. Time for another q uote from the FLAMING CHICKEN HANDBOOK Code: 843 of the Flaming Chicken Handbook states that in no way is the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (guess who?) responsible for any faulty wiring or lack thereof in your computer. The Patron Saint of Paper Clips in no way wishes harm on your computer. Any derogatory statement is simply an opinion of an individual, not of the flaming order of the flaming chickens. Said order will in no way be held responsible for any damages, injuries, loss of life, limb, head, or organs. Okay, q uote is done. Maybe I should put q uotation marks around them...nah, too much work. But I probably will eventually get around to having a seperate page just for the FLAMING CHICKEN HANDBOOK. That way all the members (what members) can print out a copy of it for themselves (if they didn\'t get that copy in the mail) I guess I\'m done for the day...I know. You want me to stay. It\'s okay. Because eventually, I\'ll be back Seeya I\'m back. And once again suprised. When I was at a TAB poetry thingy (TAB is good TAB is great We love TAB) I met some new people. One of these people (who shall remain nameless untill such time that I have explicit permission to use her name) turned out to be almost as weird as me. As in...she read the ENTIRE Longest Text Ever. The whole thing. So far two whole people (to my knowledge) have read the entire thing, and a few people have skimmed it. That means I really can justify claiming to have two and a half readers I\'m so happy That means my pointless obsession has actually entertained someone besides me Perhaps, one day, far in the future, this will actually be a world record and random people will acutally voluntarily read this text every day. Or maybe not. The point is that it is nice to have readers. Or maybe it\'s not...I mean...won\'t the quality *snicker* of my work deteriorate if I am no longer writing for the target audience of me? If that happens, then no one will read this. And then I\'ll be writing for me again. And then the quality will rise. And then people will start reading. And then the quality will go down and the vicious spiral of good and bad will continue untill I either give up this text, or go crazy...er. In any case...I should probably find a topic. Yeah...a topic would be good. Or...I could just continue to write about finding a topic. Ooooo I know a topic Ice cream trucks This has been bothering me for a while. You see...when it\'s hot, you want something cold to eat. Conviently, ice cream trucks come around during the hottest part of the year (it must be a conspiracy). As you may or may not know, small children swarm the ice cream trucks. The vendors even play whimsical music which I strongly suspect contains subliminal messages to make you hungry for ice cream. The vendors get oodles of cash, and the kids get ice cream. Now, in today\'s society of buying groceries on-line and getting them delivered, why hasn\'t any other food industry marketed this ingenius idea to bring the product to the consumer. I can just see Hot Dog, and Pizza trucks roaming the neighbor hoods, selling treats to hungry children...and adults. Of course, said adults would have to peel their butt-cheeks off the couch...but they\'d have to do that for the delivary man anyway. The food trucks could even play music that made you hungry for their food. Then the problem with obesity in America would be blamed on evil food truck drivers as opposed to the harmless, benificient television and computer. We could all breath a sigh of relief as parents kept their children inside, away from the evil truck drivers and near the T.V. Gone would be the days when parents told children to play outside, it\'s a nice day. Parents would buy their children computers, video games and other television neccesities. This, of course would expand the market for such products. This would lead to a better, more stable economy. Food industires would be buying cars, gas and music. Parents would increase the purchase of entertainment items. In return companies would make a profit, pay their workers better. The workers would then be able to afford more entertainment items and the upward spiral would continue, as opposed to the evil downward spiral of my writing. In conclusion, Ladies and Gentlemen...if you implement my idea, there will be peace and prosperity for all. As long as you don\'t mind a few more couch potatoes. Gotta go...I think I hear a catchy jingle. I\'m back...it\'s been awhile since I\'ve written here. A lot has happened. Like my EVIL school computer deleting my updates page. But it\'s all good. Especially since I just saw The Matrix: Reloaded. The following text may spoil the movie for you, so WARNING: do no read this unless you have already seen the movie. Okay. What I liked best was the philosophy on choices. (the mindless fight scenes were really cool, too). It\'s like this. In the beginning of the movie, Neo is having dreams about Trinity\'s death. Later, The Oracle tells him that he has already decided her fate. Towards the end of the movie, Neo chooses to tell Trinity to stay out of the Matrix, since he saw her die in it. She agrees, but only after seeing how important it is to him. After a horrific chain of events (is it coincidence, or fate) the people who will deactivate the secondary power source of the building Neo is infiltrating, die. So...the plan is going to fail. Unless someone does something, Neo, Morpheus and many others will die. Trinity, who is of course outside of the Matrix, knows this and chooses to enter the Matrix to save the day. The events of Neo\'s dream unfold. So...when the oracle said that the choice had already been made, she was completely correct. The moment Neo woke from dreams of Trinity\'s death, he made a choice. He would do everything in his power to keep his dream from becoming reality. So he kept her out of the Matrix, and she saw the problem, and entered the Matrix to fix it. If she had been in the Matrix, she would have likely been with Morpheus, never would have known about the plan\'s failure, would therefore not have been in the situation that resulted in her death. And the plan would have failed and Neo might have died, along with a large portion of the city (the building was set to blow if there was any intruders) So...Neo\'s choice to attempt to save Trinity triggered the sequence of events that led to her death. As Neo realizes all of this, through a nearly omniscient Architect of the Matrix, he makes another choice. This choice is simply an extension of his original choice: he will save Trinity at all costs. Neo is told that he has two choices. He can save mankind, and doom Trinity. Or he can try to save Trinity and doom mankind. No guarantee that he\'ll succeed in saving Trinity. He goes for Trinity, makes it just in time to catch her body, and starts her heart back up. In return for not taking the easy route, he gains a power in the more or less real world. He can deactivate the machines, (squidies) but at great personal cost. The movie ends with him in a coma. Now, you must realize that I have described only one aspect of this movie of all movies. There are not enough words in the English language to describe the sheer coolness of the fight choreography, special effects and the plot. I highly recommend you see the movie yourself. I\'m sorry that today\'s rant isn\'t random, insane or completely chaotic, but I must right my experience with The Matrix before I forget. I am so buying this movie when it comes out on DVD. I love it You have to admit its sheer coolness. I mean, come on It\'s the sequel to the movie that revolutionized the standard by which we judge special effects. I better stop typing before I have a heart attack...just remember...The Matrix has you...I\'m back. And throughly pissed off at my school system in general. You see...they feel that the only way to reward academic achievement...yada-yada-yada...is to force the smart kids to be ushers for Senior Honor Nite, and Graduation. Where is the logic in this? I for one, didn\'t know about such dire consequences for not deliberatly failing classes. It was bad enough that I was forced to \"volunteer\" my precious time (i could have worked on this site)...no...I was forced to wear formal attire. My school system is stuck in the past...and formal attire means...a dress...a white dress...(for those you who never bothered to find out...I am indeed female). So...for the first time in about 5 years...I wore a dress...and something that was complelty white. What cruel fate is this? To compound the EVIL situation...I was forced to wear feminine shoes. In other words...they hurt. And they pushed my toes together. Since I have a rather weird phobia of touching my own skin...this made my evening my own personall torture session. I think that such gender-specific torture should be deemed inhumane and abolished from our great society...of flaming chickens. Henceforth...Code: 666 of the Flaming Chickens Handbook states that under no circumstance will the Patron Saint of Paper Clips (guess who) be forced to wear anything other than a t-shirt and preferably black jeans. Should you violate this right, you will become destroyed or possibly dizzy. I\'m leaving now...I have some destruction to do. i\'m back. from graduation. we had to get there one hour and fifteen minutes early because there was traffic. After standing around a lot...the ceremony started. Lots of people spoke. by the time I had to do my part (tell people where to stand before getting their diploma) it was dark. there were bugs. they liked landing on me. then...i got to go stand while people said a lot of stuff. i couldn\'t hear it because someone had put the speakers facing the audience. we clapped. the whole time, even during the name-calling, seniors were playing with silly string and beachballs. afterwards...they turned off the lights. there were lots of fireworks. i wandered around for 20 minutes looking for a cell phone. i called home, and waited another hour for my ride...traffic to the school was one way. i felt sorry for my dad. i am tired...but cannot go to sleep. i\'ll copy and paste this to my site. maybe the longest text ever. you will all suffer as i have suffered when and if you graduate. i cannot feel my feet. i hate dress shoes. I\'m back. Today, I\'m here to salute the Pointless Signs Of America The PSOA have been whole-heartedly working for you, and what have you done for them? NOTHING These so-called \"pointless\" signs are doing just what they were meant to do: entertain you You cannot judge them simply because they have no apparant function. They expand your mind, making you think about all the things they could do. They could do anything they wanted to, if they just put their minds to it. If you judged everything by what it doesn\'t acomplish, then the entire world is populated by pointless beings. Noone can do everything, so how can you expect a SIGN, with the I.Q. of toilet paper, to do everything. You people sicken me. You expect far to much of the inanimate world. The inanimate world, on the otherhand, expects nothing of you. Which is exactly what it gets. If you expect nothing, and get nothing, you feel nothing. If you expect nothing and get something, you\'re happy. But, if you expect something and get something you feel nothing. And if you expect something and get nothing, you feel cheated. If you\'re following along, and not completly confused, you\'ll realize that it is better to be a pessimist than an optomist. Yep that\'s right. This entry went from saluting the PSOA to making a statement about my ideals. This has been a weird day. You can thank my associate \"Meg\" she came up with the PSOA acronym. Everyone, clap for \"Meg\".I gotta go...seeya later I\'m finnaly back Today, I took a long look at this site, which is the acomplishment of almost a year of work. And I asked myself \"How could I have better spent my time?\" And so, in the interest of wasting even more time, I made a list. Here we go Number One: I could have cured cancer. Not that I know anything about medicine...or cancer for that matter. But I\'m sure that if I just would have put my mind to it, I could have done it. Number Two: I could helped the earth to find eternal and lasting peace. Which would be boring. So I at least have an excuse for not doing that. Number Three: I could have studied and stuff. Uh...don\'t think so...Number Four: I could have learned to drive. This would have resulted in the deaths of numerous pedistrians...and I would still probably be wondering around in search of a McDonalds. Number Five: I could have read more books, played more video games and watched more mindless television. Gee...I wish I\'d thought of that sooner. Number Six: I could have implemented one of several plans for world domination. Or, as an alternative, I could have ruined several plans for world domination that other people made. Number Seven: I could drive people crazy. Wait...aren\'t I already doing that? Scratch number seven. And on to: Number Eight: I could have...uhhhh...ummmmm...actually thought up these things before hand. Number Nine: Now it\'s just getting redundant, isn\'t it? Number Ten: This is the list that never ends. Yes, it goes on and on my friend. One person, started typing it not knowing what it was, and they\'ll continue typing it forever just because this is the list that never ends, yes it goes on and on my friends, some person started typing it not...etc, etc. Okay...I admit it. I have officialy run out of ways I could have better spent my time. I don\'t think there actually are any. Except for maybe five and six. Now, those have possibilities. However, I am currently content to just sit here and type. For the benefit of you, the reader...who may or may not exist. Either way, I\'m continuing to sort of entertain myself. I feel like I should be outraged about some topic or another. I just can\'t work up the energy to be outraged. Perhaps a nice, soothing mistrust. Yeah. I can work with mistrust. I definitly mistrust lots of stuff. Like organ grinders, and the evil conspiracies. Did you know, that Kodak was part of the conspiracy to assasinate John F. Kennedy. Now, some of you are probably thinking \"Gee, Really?\", or \"Wow, I never knew that \" while others are thinking \"Who\'s John F. Kennedy?\" or possibly \"Who or What is Kodak\". I fervently hope that you\'re not thinking the last two...especially about Kodak. Kodak, as you may know, is a film developing company. And John F. Kennedy (JFK) was an alien bent on global domination. Or possibly a really good president who wanted to fly to the moon. Either way, he got assasinated. And ever loony in America decided that it was a conspiracy. Some even go so far as to claim that Kodak \"changed\" the pictures of the assasination to make an assasination in the bushes become a tree\'s shadow. I didn\'t know that they had such good technology back then. I have to wonder...why would Kodak do such a thing. Perhaps Kodak is actually a front organization for a shadowy governmental system that controls the entire world and didn\'t want mankind to obtain the freedom of the stars and so tried to sabotauge the space program even though it didn\'t work as well as they planned. Or perhaps not. Either way, Kodak is undeniably evil. How can any company that takes so many \"wholesome\" pictures not be? You can just bet that they look at every one that get\'s turned in to them, judging blackmail value, and whether or not you could get arrested. It\'s just sickening, you can\'t even take a simple photo nowadays. Unless you have a digital camera, which are a symbol of freedom from the old ways and willing enslavement to the new ways. We can only hope that the digital camera manufacturers are kinder masters than the evil Kodak Lords. I better go...I think Kodak is tracing my site....I\'m back now And, once again, I have proof that someone actually took the time (two hours) to read this entire Longest Text Ever It\'s amazing, it\'s incredible, it\'s unbelievable. But true. Even more incredible, this time it\'s someone I don\'t even know Wooooooo I feel inspired and happy and other really good emotions and stuff. And so, I\'ll take a trip down memory lane, to the dark depths of the past, to when I decided to make this page. It was inspired, in part, by my sheer and utter boredom. In school, back before I even owned a computer, I\'d type random words for long periods of time, \'cause I had nothing better to do. Once I got this computer, I decided to do something similar on my beloved site. But, it ended up making more sense than I anticipated (scary thought, huh). Oh, well...I tired of nostalgia. Back to the present. Right now, I\'m just typing so that no one can say that I\'ve been slacking off. I don\'t think I have any conspiracy theories...except pop-ups/pop-unders. Have you ever had the evil pop-up that says that if you click here, it\'ll get rid off all the annoying pop-ups? Isn\'t that sort of ironic? Could the pop-up blocker people have chosen a better means to advertise their product? It\'s like grand-theft auto 3\'s talk show, you know, the one where there are Citizens Raging Against Phones? Or CRAP, for short. And the lady representing them, calls the radio station...on a phone. It\'s stupid and ironic and just shouldn\'t exist in a better world. Pop-Up ad\'s help you get rid of pop-up ads? Insane, chaotic...hmmmmm...I wonder who thought of it? Was it on purpose, or was it just some mistake? It is now my civic duty to discover this ancient mystery, and reveal it to the uncaring world. Or maybe I\'ll go make a frozen pizza. Yeah. That sounds good, too. Since I\'m not particualarly inspired at the moment, I should leave and let you gather what is left of your sanity. I just can\'t seem to stop, though. Okay...I can do it. I\'m leaving. I\'m back...and it\'s several hours later. I\'ve decided to imortalize the stupidity of my dog, Moose. She is a heavy-set Yorkshire Terrior (12 lbs.) In otherwords, she\'s a small yappy dog who is big for her breed. Today, I met her arch-enemy. An enemy so terrifying that Moose cannot stop shaking. An enemy so hideous that Moose must destroy it at all costs. An enemy so dangerous that Moose fears it above all others. Now you may be wondering what horrible beast is Moose\'s arch-enemy. And you probably suspect that it is something pathetic. You would be correct in your suspiciousness...for Mooses arch-enemy is...*dramatic drumroll*...a small, white, feather. Now, Moose has seen many feathers, birds even. But none have struck terror in her little moose heart like this particular feather. So...naturally I put her arch-enemy in my pocket and brought it home with me. This action has made her very suspicious of where my loyalties lie. She tracks the feather smell all over the house, and goes crazy whenever I take it out of my pocket. She even got her sister and mother in the spirt of things. Now her sister sounds an alarm whenever she sees the evil feather. Now, you may be wondering what is so terrifying about a small, white, feather. So am I. It doesn\'t smell funny, (I asked my brother, since I don\'t have a sense of smell), it seems perfectly ordinary. So, I\'ve decided that Moose works for some secret government organization, and that the feather is the key to the destruction of the world, and I am just blithely letting it enter our home, so that it may furthur its evil plans to destroy the universe. That is the only possible explanation as to why it upsets her so much. Or...maybe it\'s the feather off of the cartoon owl from the tootsie-roll pop comercials (one...two...three..*crunch*). Whatever the case, I decided that the whole world, (or three of four random people) deserve to know that if the world and or universe are destroyed, it\'s the evil, little, white, feather\'s fault. Now I\'d better go and torture my Moose with it...:) I am officially back. And you, the potentially non-existant reader gets a once in a lifetime chance to hear me rant and rave about my Horrible, Horrible Family Vacation. I know. You feel very, very honored. It\'s like this. My mother is a control freak, and she decided on the spur of the moment that we were going north to visit relatives. Later that day, she decided we were NOT going north, we were going south to a beach resort. Still later that day, she got offended at some trivial thing and decided that we weren\'t going anywhere at all. The very next day, she decided that we were going north, after all. So, we packed everthing up. Before we knew it, we were on the road. The first part of the trip was fairly easy. As in, I was half-asleep, hoping that we\'d arrive while I slept. Then, in an inspired move, my brother talked my mother into letting him sit up front. That meant that my mother would be in the back, with me and my younger, eviler sister. Immediatly, my mother started complaining. It was uncomfortable in the back, it was too hot, it was too cold. Then, she accidently woke our three yappy dogs up, and they relized that they were in a car. That meant only one corse of action for them. They started shaking and barked their little heads off. This annoyed my mother further, untill she asked, no, demanded that my father turn the car around so that we could go home. Unfortuantly, we had already driven 337 miles toward our destination. After much argument, my father was going to turn around, untill he realized that my mother was going to drop the dogs and me off, and then turn around and continue north. This seemed slightly unpracticle, so we ended up not taking that 337 mile detour. We eventually reached our destination after 16 hours of virtually non-stop driving. We got there, we ate. We slept. My mother visited relatives. And so the week went by. I got to go to a huge library, and see Terminator 3 at the local theater. That was the high point of the entire trip. The last day, we were deciding where to eat. My mom said that she didn\'t care. So my dad picked a steak place. My mother tried to order a mushroom-swiss burger...only to discover that the place had no swiss-cheese. So she decided on a salad, only to discover that they didn\'t have her favorite salad dressing. After much deliberation, she decided that she wouldn\'t eat. After complaining how hungry she was, and about the poor quality of the resteraunt, she walked out of the resteraunt, instructing the rest of us to \"enjoy our meals\". And I wonder where my little sister gets her annoyingness. Not that my mother is annoying...just set in her ways. The whole meal thing was about the only interesting thing to happen during the week. On the way home, we had gotten approximatly 4 hours into the trip when my mother predicatably decided that we had to go back and eat at the 50th aniversary of her favorite ice cream place. Needless to say, we ignored her. Oh, and when my sister had to go to the bathroom very badly during a traffic jam, my mother had the good taste to making hissing/water noises to make my sister\'s problem worse. She claimed that my little sister always did it to her, and she was getting pay-back. Between her bickering with my sister, and obsessivly playing neopets games, I don\'t know what to do with her. Anyway...that was my family vacation rant. It sucked. No suprise. At least it\'s over. Sorry if I complained a lot. If you don\'t like it, start your own longest text ever. Anyway, I promise to go back to my usual routine the next time I rant here. I thought of a topic on the way home, but forgot it. Seeya. I\'m back I know, I took you completly by suprise. You thought you\'d gotten rid of me. *cheesy super-hero voice* Well, fear not, random citizen, for I, PSOPC am here *normal voice* Today I have a very important to discuss with you in this: PERFECTLY NORMAL PUBLIC SERVICE ANNOUNCMENT. Yes, that\'s right. It\'s time to warn you, the viewer...er...reader...about the evils of various stuff. Today\'s lesson is: subliminal messages . That\'s right, folks, mass hypnosis via commercials. Now, I\'m sure you\'ve at least heard of subliminal messages , right? No? Well...prepare to be enlightened. Subliminal messages are an advertising technique that puts hidden pictures and words into a main image. You don\'t see them, but your subconsious (dreaming) mind does. Your subconsious mind acts on whatever it is told. What does this mean to you? It means that WAL-MART TV IS EVIL EVIIIIIIIIIIIIL Why else would they invest all that money to show commercials in their own store? Because they put subliminal messages in them, of course Subliminal messanging also explains the successes of certain fast-food resteraunts, and brand name items. BEWARE YOUR TOASTER OVEN Okay. That had nothing to do whatsoever with subliminal messages...it\'s just cool to say. Anyway, only watch wal-mart if you WANT to be subliminaly entertained into purchasing a new set of TUPERWARE, even though your old set is PERFECTLY fine. This has been a public service announcment. Pretty cool, huh? Uh...you don\'t have to take the subliminal stuff seriously. It\'s true, and all, but I have no proof about wal-mart, or certain fast food resteraunts. It makes sense, though. Wal-mart TV is evil. You cannot deny it. Seeya...hmmm..I wonder if there\'s subliminal stuff in my computer...I\'m back. And I feel that it\'s time for a FAKE commercial break, for the highly informed, obviously brain-dead consumer. And now, a word from our non-existant sponsor. Ketchup: The only food that you\'ll want to eat after traveling to the 5th Dimension. It\'s been practically proven that Ketchup transforms into a highly intoxicating (non-addictive) delicious substance upon returning from the 5th Dimension. Stock up now with our Valu-Pak to recieve 3-metric tons of Ketchup, all for the low, low price of your brain, since you\'re obviously not using it anyway. Then, just wait for technology to \"catch-up\" (get it, catch-up, Ketchup?)so you can travel to the 5th Dimension like our scientists almost did. (Next Commercial) Get ready fo: Faux\'s new \"reality\" TV show, \"How Low Can We Go?\" It\'s about six contestants who compete to create the worst, least likely \"reality\" TV show. The winner not only gets the million-dollar prize, they get the chance to produce the show they created. Remember: if the show sucks, it\'s their fault, not ours (Next exciting commercial )And for all the idiots out there: Try new and improved Dum-B-Gon Dum-B-Gon stimulates brain activity, making you up to 10 times smarter Not only that, Dum-B-Gon: stimulates weight loss, cures \"any\" illness, does simple houshold chores, never leaves the toilet seat up and is the perfect gentle companion for your kids. How can you pass up this revolutionary new product? It\'s yours for only 3 bi-monthly payments of $3.95 ($3,95,000 on days ending in \"y\")Don\'t forget, Dum-B-Gon is practically guaranteed * (*Not a guarantee) (Next commercial)Have you ever wondered why food sometimes goes bad in your fridge, even if you\'ve only had it a few years? It\'s because of the \"evil little faeries with sharp little teeth.\" These \"faeries\" sprinkle your food with highly toxic \"age dust\" and ruin a perfectly good four-year-old meatloaf. How do you stop them? With our patented \"spray\". Our \"spray\" kills over 99.9% of \"faeries\" (which are much to small to see) Our \"spray\" also kills most disease causing agents, like rats, or pigeons. WARNING: Leave food sit in an open, well-venilated spot for a week before eating. And now, back to our featured presentation. Wasn\'t that semi-entertaining? I bet you wanna go eat some Ketchup covered Dum-B Gon right now, while watching \"reality\" TV. Just make sure you \"spray\" your food first. Pathetic, wasn\'t it? Oh, well. I was bored, and a dilligent reader suggested I make fake commercials, so...therer they are. Happy? Good. I\'m leavin\', for now. I\'m back. And I\'m willing to enlighten you, the potentially you-know-what reader. Today, I was checking out some weird news. At one point, I read an article that stated that it had been proven, conclusivly, that Kansas was flatter than the standard pancake. The researches even used highly advanced technololgy to map the su
line, (line111@gmail.com), 25.09.2011 - 05:23
Abstract: There have been many attempts to create the longest webpage possible. Until now, Longcat seemed to have produced the definitive work in this area. However, with the advent of advanced technologies, including the so-called \"Javascript\", it has been possible to create what we believe to be the final word in elongate digital media. An interesting side-effect of our work is that it serves as a chronometer. One possible application of this serendipitous happenstance is in the accurate mensuration of procrastination. This is line 1 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 2 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 3 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 4 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 5 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 6 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 7 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 8 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 9 of the longest webpage in the world. 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This is line 1000 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1001 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1002 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1003 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1004 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1005 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1006 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1007 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1008 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1009 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1010 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1011 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1012 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1013 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1014 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1015 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1016 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 1017 of the longest webpage in the world. 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This is line 1072 of the longest webpage in the world.
line , (line111@gmail.com), 25.09.2011 - 05:22
Abstract: There have been many attempts to create the longest webpage possible. Until now, Longcat seemed to have produced the definitive work in this area. However, with the advent of advanced technologies, including the so-called \"Javascript\", it has been possible to create what we believe to be the final word in elongate digital media. An interesting side-effect of our work is that it serves as a chronometer. One possible application of this serendipitous happenstance is in the accurate mensuration of procrastination. This is line 1 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 2 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 3 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 4 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 5 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 6 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 7 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 8 of the longest webpage in the world. This is line 9 of the longest webpage in the world. 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the uae, (uae@uae.com), 25.09.2011 - 04:49
HOMESTATISTICSABOUTADVERTISEBLOGCONTACT LAST 7 DAYS RATINGDATA ADDED → 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. France 2011-09-2510:48:11 AMHUNGARY 2011-09-2510:17:00 AMSPAIN 2011-09-2509:36:00 AMUNITED STATES 2011-09-2509:09:57 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2507:54:48 AMCHINA2011-09-2507:19:12 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2505:18:26 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2504:42:12 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2504:40:37 AMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2504:09:40 AMCHINA2011-09-2503:37:02 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2503:14:36 AMCANADA2011-09-2502:32:35 AMCHINA2011-09-2502:10:48 AMUNKNOWN COUNTRY2011-09-2411:41:05 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2411:30:30 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2411:01:19 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2410:56:16 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2410:49:28 PM2011-09-2410:47:33 PMPERU2011-09-2410:46:57 PM2011-09-2410:32:51 PMUNKNOWN COUNTRY2011-09-2410:21:16 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2410:13:41 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2409:48:49 PMSAUDI ARABIA2011-09-2409:28:17 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2408:59:15 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2408:52:01 PMCZECH REPUBLIC2011-09-2408:39:17 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2408:25:00 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2407:52:38 PMNETHERLANDS2011-09-2407:15:29 PMINDIA2011-09-2407:12:20 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2406:56:41 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2406:47:00 PMPERU2011-09-2406:46:46 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2406:45:52 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2406:40:54 PMDENMARK2011-09-2406:33:39 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2406:33:28 PMPERU2011-09-2406:30:54 PMCHINA2011-09-2406:24:38 PMSWEDEN2011-09-2405:58:44 PMFINLAND2011-09-2404:59:15 PMPERU2011-09-2404:49:36 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2404:18:35 PMSOUTH AFRICA2011-09-2403:58:37 PMNORWAY2011-09-2403:58:23 PMINDIA2011-09-2403:16:09 PMPERU2011-09-2402:36:53 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2402:36:47 PMPERU2011-09-2402:20:20 PMIRELAND2011-09-2402:09:31 PMAUSTRIA2011-09-2402:09:23 PMPOLAND2011-09-2401:59:28 PMAUSTRALIA2011-09-2401:00:57 PMAUSTRALIA2011-09-2412:38:07 PMPOLAND2011-09-2412:35:46 PMISRAEL2011-09-2412:18:19 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2409:46:35 AMPERU2011-09-2409:43:56 AMAZERBAIJAN2011-09-2407:50:21 AMCANADA2011-09-2407:50:14 AMINDIA2011-09-2407:26:12 AMPHILIPPINES2011-09-2406:21:41 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2406:18:12 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2406:03:29 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2405:38:31 AMCANADA2011-09-2404:57:35 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2404:14:36 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-2404:07:05 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2403:26:08 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2403:23:35 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2403:19:02 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-2403:09:35 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2403:09:33 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-2402:35:51 AMCHINA2011-09-2402:10:37 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-2412:53:08 AMUNKNOWN COUNTRY2011-09-2311:31:24 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2310:44:08 PMUNKNOWN COUNTRY2011-09-2310:44:06 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2310:41:27 PMPALESTINIAN TERRITORY, O...2011-09-2310:36:48 PMUNKNOWN COUNTRY2011-09-2310:30:33 PMPALESTINIAN TERRITORY, O...2011-09-2310:30:21 PMSWEDEN2011-09-2310:04:44 PMSPAIN2011-09-2310:04:35 PMCANADA2011-09-2309:18:49 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2309:07:34 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-2308:53:15 PMCANADA2011-09-2308:52:42 PMCANADA2011-09-2308:51:09 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2308:45:02 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-2308:44:23 PMUNITED 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AMARGENTINA2011-09-1304:49:42 AMNEW ZEALAND2011-09-1304:35:36 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1304:30:09 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1304:26:53 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1304:23:39 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1303:49:45 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1303:27:13 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1302:52:52 AMCANADA2011-09-1302:46:30 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1302:25:50 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1302:04:26 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1301:59:01 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1301:53:56 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-1301:33:42 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1301:04:40 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1312:40:56 AMSWEDEN2011-09-1312:35:27 AMMEXICO2011-09-1312:26:21 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1312:04:38 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1312:03:06 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1211:52:32 PMTRINIDAD AND TOBAGO2011-09-1211:51:00 PMSPAIN2011-09-1211:33:20 PMMEXICO2011-09-1211:26:09 PMCANADA2011-09-1210:41:51 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1210:39:46 PMSAUDI ARABIA2011-09-1210:31:00 PMBELGIUM2011-09-1210:21:31 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-1210:18:11 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1209:45:11 PMGERMANY2011-09-1209:11:04 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1209:03:27 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1208:53:45 PMDENMARK2011-09-1208:49:20 PMBAHAMAS2011-09-1208:28:19 PMISRAEL2011-09-1208:11:40 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-1207:50:54 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-1207:31:45 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1207:16:34 PMEUROPEAN UNION2011-09-1206:22:55 PMJORDAN2011-09-1206:03:57 PMGERMANY2011-09-1205:57:54 PMDENMARK2011-09-1205:56:06 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1205:55:45 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1205:50:30 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1205:25:07 PMPOLAND2011-09-1205:24:41 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1204:11:27 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1204:02:25 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:51:28 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:47:54 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:34:18 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-1203:28:29 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:20:35 PMSWEDEN2011-09-1203:16:00 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:03:39 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:01:54 PMEUROPEAN UNION2011-09-1202:16:13 PMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-1202:08:18 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1201:13:09 PMMALAYSIA2011-09-1212:27:34 PMINDIA2011-09-1211:55:54 AMSLOVENIA2011-09-1210:41:20 AMUNITED KINGDOM2011-09-1210:33:51 AMRUSSIAN FEDERATION2011-09-1209:52:39 AMGERMANY2011-09-1209:32:09 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-1209:24:36 AMEUROPEAN UNION2011-09-1208:54:30 AMCHINA2011-09-1207:52:37 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1207:47:37 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-1207:41:58 AMJORDAN2011-09-1207:35:12 AMMEXICO2011-09-1207:29:27 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1206:47:21 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1206:22:32 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1206:19:35 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1206:15:49 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1206:09:16 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1205:44:54 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-1204:55:24 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1204:37:52 AMECUADOR2011-09-1204:28:54 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1204:19:46 AMAUSTRALIA2011-09-1204:17:48 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1204:01:46 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:53:24 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1203:50:37 AMARGENTINA2011-09-1202:58:02 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1201:58:37 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1201:55:26 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1201:47:57 AMNORWAY2011-09-1201:36:01 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1201:18:13 AMCHINA2011-09-1201:08:55 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1212:33:43 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1212:30:20 AMCANADA2011-09-1212:21:33 AMUNITED STATES2011-09-1212:12:43 AMCANADA2011-09-1111:59:42 PMUNITED STATES2011-09-1111:53:40 PMUNKNOWN COUNTRY Or: this is how all begun. You reached the very beginning. Congratulations... it seems your browser didn\'t crash yet ;-) Have a Great Day Note: When we tested the system we experienced massive loading times when displaying a huge amount of individual visitor lines with their real text. So we decided to display 1000 lines on first load. By clicking on one of the replaced lines, the 333 real lines in this section will be loaded and displayed. The length of the page is 100% generated by adding one line with every visitor. All times displayed are GMT +01:00 World\'s Longest Website © 2008 Solution Studios GmbH. All rights reserved. We are not responsible for the content of external sites. Images featured on sites are © of their respective owners. Recent Activity Share 0digg
longest, (page@gmail.com), 25.09.2011 - 04:41
All In One Select Your Destination Home Guestbook Contact Weblog Gaming Arena Download Spritual Zone See your Location Longest Web Page Title of your new page Global Ranking Download Our Free Toolbar Latest Articles (1). China : World No.1 in Internet Users (2). An albino (white) kangaroo in Uzbekistan (3). Amazing Bridges around the World (4). Future Computers - On their way I Blog @ BloggerStop.net BikersBlog 861022 visits (1839846 hits) since 20th May, 2007 Longest Web Page This Page has been shifted to BloggerStop.net, due to increasing number of comments; The names of comment posters on this page will be shifted to that page in a few days. Thank you for coming Here, Please visit this page on my new Website Here The last comments on this page: Comment posted by > SAI , 11/20/2007, 1:44 am: I Welcome Thank all my visitors for visiting and writing their Names here Comment posted by graydon, 11/21/2007, 1:26 am: lol Comment posted by Mayank, 11/21/2007, 1:33 am: I am astronaut number 4 on this page. ROGER THAT lol :) Comment posted by TylerN, 11/22/2007, 10:10 am: That took forever:( Comment posted by Varun, 11/22/2007, 10:50 am: this ws amazing thing:):) hw did u do dat Comment posted by Quwen Quiola Qyiz, 11/24/2007, 11:08 pm: :\'( It takes forever for a meerkat to run down your page. Comment posted by Kevin St.Onge, 11/25/2007, 3:47 am: Happy Evolution Day Comment posted by: 03/27/2008, 12:55 pm thanveer Offline Happy ending;) Comment posted by pwnage, 04/24/2008, 2:15 am: haha this things is long XD im at school:D Comment posted by Delmar Stuermer (Del-icious), 05/06/2008, 2:05 am: i printed this web page:o8) nice job Comment posted by xual, 05/10/2008, 4:42 pm: at last i completed a journy of two hours please visit my site www.xual.page.tl if you want link exchange then please your welcome Comment posted by Delmar Stuermer (Del-icious), 05/13/2008, 1:57 am: it took me about 20 mins to scroll down by pressing down the roller button at the top of the page and moving the mouse to the bottom of the screen. Comment posted by ben, 06/03/2008, 10:03 pm: yey:o8) Comment posted by snipeownage, 06/05/2008, 6:36 pm: lmao fun boring fun took 2 hours Comment posted by Tamafern, 06/07/2008, 5:58 pm: OMG This was sooo fun:( Comment posted by Anamika, 06/20/2008, 12:19 pm: ;) Comment posted by Justin, 07/15/2008, 12:10 pm: YAY D I made it~ Comment posted by Angel, 07/15/2008, 10:02 pm: It took about 7 minutes scrolling down the whole page with my Wii D Comment posted by Tamanna, 07/26/2008, 9:44 pm: I hav jst 1 word ~ AWESOME Comment posted by bob, 07/28/2008, 9:47 am: Wow Comment posted by Brandy and Rowe, 07/29/2008, 6:43 am: This took a whole school lesson ROFL Copter Comment posted by Ian, 08/02/2008, 10:53 pm: wow that was bloody long... L O N G Comment posted by Iam Legend, 08/08/2008, 3:10 am: can you make it longer??? Comment posted by Ernest, 08/14/2008, 7:11 am: WOOOOOOOOOO THAT KEPT ME SOO ENTERTAINED Comment posted by farny, 08/15/2008, 3:16 am: Comment posted by farneys dad, 08/15/2008, 3:25 am: ha ha farney Comment posted by Dave, 09/06/2008, 7:50 am: Took about 4 minutes with my Logitech mousewheel: has a thing called Microgear, which when set to its highest basically free-rolls the mousewheel Comment posted by yeh yeah, 09/13/2008, 8:45 am: That took me 3 weeks. Sorry, I was lying. I actually just taped it, took a poop, came back, and it was done. But then I took another poop, and now I\'m commenting it. Comment posted by huntard, 09/19/2008, 12:52 am: HAI Comment posted by Eric Pound, 09/24/2008, 10:34 pm: i just got 61 fletching in runescape. Comment posted by poddy, 09/30/2008, 12:29 am: nice webpage took me 30mins to scroll dow using the roller in my mouse Comment posted by weener, 09/30/2008, 5:53 pm: This is awesome Comment posted by Starheim, 09/30/2008, 9:30 pm: My logitech mouse owns, took me 5 min:D but great page;) Comment posted by biglipsjim, 10/02/2008, 10:58 am: i also have a logitech did a wheel game 6665 in 60 sec. it took two mins. to get down here lol great page guys fun fun Comment posted by BK, 10/07/2008, 10:45 pm: wonderful.. u can check mine...its very small http://randomthoughts.ebored.com/ Comment posted by Ben aneesh, 10/11/2008, 2:28 am: lol it took me a min. (with the MicroGear™ Precision scroll wheel.) Comment posted by kav, 10/14/2008, 4:15 pm: Comment posted by Atherix, 10/21/2008, 10:15 pm: Definately the longest page I\'ve ever been on. Comment posted by: 12/27/2008, 3:21 pm kothachat Offline Visit My site Comment posted by Applesolutly, 01/28/2009, 11:35 pm: says hi Comment posted by Heiska, 02/13/2009, 2:34 am: Kallio rules Comment posted by jay, 03/04/2009, 9:28 pm: thats not long Comment posted by Efren, 03/10/2009, 4:28 am: differin canada drugs a href \"https://wiki.doit.wisc.edu/confluence/download/attachments/10029550/dif.html\">differin canada drugs /a> differin canada drugs Comment posted by nathan, 03/17/2009, 1:43 am: this is not long at all wat a lil poop monkey Comment posted by nathan, 03/17/2009, 1:43 am: this is not long at all wat a lil poop monkey Comment posted by Kylie, 04/14/2009, 6:39 pm: i love these faces :- Comment posted by hi, 04/20/2009, 11:59 pm: :- Comment posted by Me, 04/27/2009, 6:24 pm: Comment posted by butthole, 05/07/2009, 8:37 pm: this sucks Comment posted by jake, 05/12/2009, 9:58 pm: lol Comment posted by Bob, 05/12/2009, 11:40 pm: This sucks Comment posted by THIS BLOWS, 05/18/2009, 7:56 am: THIS IS SUPER DUPER LONG WOW Comment posted by unkonwn, 05/20/2009, 5:11 am: http://www.iaddesign.com will create you a nice website. Comment posted by Billy Bob, 05/20/2009, 9:52 pm: Im the best Comment posted by me, 05/23/2009, 3:19 am: ammr :- Comment posted by u+me goodnight, 06/02/2009, 12:48 am: lets make it longer like my dic.k :- :- Comment posted by jake, 06/03/2009, 2:03 am: :- Comment posted by Jonathan rivera, 06/09/2009, 6:49 pm: hey people wat up Comment posted by nick, 06/10/2009, 4:36 am: long Comment posted by angela, 06/18/2009, 2:53 am: I never know what to say Comment posted by Koolie Beans , 06/28/2009, 1:58 pm: this is crap i expected more Comment posted by 6, 07/07/2009, 3:17 am: 654654 Comment posted by duduhrened, 07/07/2009, 9:20 pm: Nice Post www Comment posted by mistic mab, 07/10/2009, 9:06 am: dafgafsfdfdfd Comment posted by Kiss my ass scarface, 07/22/2009, 5:29 pm: Tht is wank lmao :- Comment posted by sd, 08/19/2009, 7:16 pm: rt6uk Comment posted by concered school goer, 08/19/2009, 7:50 pm: booga booga booga, i just put a curse on all of you.. Comment posted by andy, 08/25/2009, 6:29 pm: Comment posted by luis torres, 09/05/2009, 7:53 am: WAZAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA Comment posted by Jack weaver, 09/08/2009, 9:11 am: i love men Comment posted by Jack morris, 09/08/2009, 9:22 am: i love men Comment posted by BGPOeharga, 09/10/2009, 9:27 am: fdgsegsargw Comment posted by shhhh, 09/11/2009, 10:15 pm: Comment posted by poopy, 09/15/2009, 7:21 pm: :- Comment posted by weirdo, 09/26/2009, 2:10 pm: ??? Comment posted by Alison, 09/30/2009, 11:55 pm: wierd Comment posted by a, 10/03/2009, 12:31 am: Comment posted by DiaperLuver, 10/04/2009, 1:36 am: I\'ve been on longer... 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I set it to max settings and disengaged the scroll ratchet. 7 seconds baby Comment posted by bobby, 10/28/2009, 12:11 am: i dont think this is the longes one yet... :- Comment posted by no body, 10/29/2009, 12:06 am: buu this sucks Comment posted by moose boy, 10/29/2009, 12:39 am: it took me .5 seconds to get to the bottom \"page down\" Comment posted by hi, 11/03/2009, 8:21 am: Comment posted by miss man, 11/03/2009, 8:35 pm: :- Comment posted by ;, 11/06/2009, 7:51 am: ; Comment posted by ya mams gay, 11/10/2009, 3:39 pm: yousuck Comment posted by 3654, 11/13/2009, 6:57 am: Comment posted by ?, 11/18/2009, 8:53 pm: ??? 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Wiki Loves Monuments: Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win Portal:Current events From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Worldwide current events | Sports events Topics in the news Vladimir Putin (pictured) announces that he will seek the presidency of Russia, following his candidacy\'s proposal by incumbent Dmitry Medvedev. Michael Sata is elected President of Zambia, defeating incumbent Rupiah Banda. CERN\'s OPERA researchers report the observation of neutrinos appearing to travel faster than the speed of light and request independent investigation to confirm the finding. Troy Davis, convicted of a 1989 murder, is executed by the U.S. state of Georgia, following several failed appeals and high-profile calls for clemency. Valentina Matviyenko is elected Chairwoman of the Federation Council of Russia, the highest political position attained by a woman in the country since Catherine the Great. Wikinews – Recent deaths – More current events... 25 September 2011 (Sunday) edit history watch Disasters A Buddha Air tourist flight taking people to see Mount Everest crashes in Nepal with eighteen people dead. (AFP via Sydney Morning Herald) September 25, 2011 Wikinews articles 24 September 2011 (Saturday) edit history watch Armed conflicts and attacks Arab Spring: 2011 Libyan civil war: In the pro-Muammar Gaddafi stronghold of Sirte, National Transitional Council forces are massing in a square about a kilometer (0.6 miles) from the city center, as they weather heavy fire from pro-Gaddafi snipers. (Reuters) International relations Turkey seizes a Syrian ship possibly carrying weapons to the Syrian Army, as the 2011 Syrian uprising continues. (Voice of America) Disasters Six people die in a house fire in the London suburb of Neasden. (The Telegraph) Law and crime A Spanish oil tanker hijacked off the coast of West Africa is freed, with no harm reportedly done to the crew, and no ransom paid to the pirates. (AP via Google News) Business Swiss bank UBS reports that its chief executive Oswald Grübel has resigned in the wake of a rogue trading scandal. (Sky News) Politics At the United Russia Congress, Vladimir Putin accepts Dmitry Medvedev\'s proposal to run in the 2012 Russian presidential election. (BBC) (RIA Novosti) Herman Cain wins a Florida straw poll for the 2012 Republican presidential primaries. (CNN) Voters in Bahrain go to the polls for byelections caused by the resignation of Shiite members during the 2011 Bahraini uprising with many Shiite voters boycotting it. (Reuters) Voters in the United Arab Emirates go to the polls for parliamentary elections. (BBC) Science The decommissioned NASA Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite re-enters Earth\'s atmosphere without incident, after more than 20 years in orbit. (Washington Post) September 24, 2011 Wikinews articles Australian TV networks reprimanded for breaching code of practice 23 September 2011 (Friday) edit history watch Armed conflicts and attacks 2011 Yemeni uprising: The President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, returns from Saudi Arabia after a three-month absence, amid an increase in political unrest and violence in Yemen. (Al-Jazeera) Thousands of mourners gather in Kabul for the funeral of former President of Afghanistan Burhanuddin Rabbani, who was killed by a suicide bomber earlier in the week. (BBC) Business and economy Global stock markets fall for a second day amid fears of a deepening economic crisis. (Sydney Morning Herald) (Bloomberg) (CNBC) (Sky News) Thousands of Toyota workers in Australia go on strike over a pay dispute. (ABC News Australia) Fitch Ratings predicts that financial returns on commercial property in the United States will stabilize, though slowly, in the months ahead. (Reuters) Disasters Floods in the Filipino province of Maguindanao affect 16,000 families. (Inquirer) International relations Israeli–Palestinian conflict During the opening of the General Assembly of the United Nations, the President of the Palestinian National Authority, Mahmoud Abbas, makes a bid for UN recognition in a unilateral declaration of a Palestinian state, which would exist in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, and have East Jerusalem as its capital. (Washington Post) (Sky News) The quartet of Middle East negotiators - the United States, European Union, Russia and the United Nations - call on both Israel and Palestine to resume negotiations. (BBC) Law and crime South Korean prosecutors raid the offices of seven savings banks whose operations were suspended last week, with the president of one bank committing suicide. (Yonhap) Politics Patriotic Front leader Michael Sata is declared the winner of the Zambian presidential election. (BBC) The United States House of Representatives passes a resolution providing funding for the Government through to November 18, but the Senate vows to reject it, making a government shutdown from October 1 possible. (Washington Post) Science NASA\'s 1991-era Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is expected to fall from orbit sometime this evening Greenwich Mean Time. (BBC) September 23, 2011 Wikinews articles US hikers freed after two years of custody in Iran Congressman Thad McCotter ends bid for U.S. president 22 September 2011 (Thursday) edit history watch Armed conflict and attacks At least five people are killed in a bus bombing in Pakistan\'s Bajaur Agency. (Xinhua) Business and economy World stock markets plunge amid growing global fears of recession. (Sky News) Facebook makes major changes to its social networking interface, updating its profile page, adding an app store, and amending its news feed with a \"timeline\" feature. (CNN) (MSNBC) Hewlett-Packard fires CEO Leo Apotheker, replacing him with former EBay CEO Meg Whitman. (Wall Street Journal via The Australian) Disasters Typhoon Roke passes through the Japanese island of Honshu, causing 13 deaths, and arrives in Hokkaido. (AP via ABC News America) At least four people are killed and 18 injured in a factory fire in the suburb of Dombivli in the Indian city of Mumbai. (IBN Live) Heavy floods and related disasters across China, especially in the drainage basin of the Han River and Wei River, leave 90 dead and 22 missing. (Xinhua) (AFP via Google) 2011 Pacific hurricane season: Hurricane Hilary reaches category-three strength off the coast of Mexico, but is not expected to make landfall. (NHC) International relations The Anniston Chemical Activity destroys its last mustard gas shells, becoming the fifth of 9 U.S. depots to close under terms of the Chemical Weapons Treaty. (Anniston Star) Pope Benedict XVI commences a state visit to Germany. (The Telegraph) The People\'s Republic of China warns the United States over its proposed sale of newer versions of the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon to Taiwan. (Reuters) The United States and European nations walk out of the General Assembly of the United Nations during an accusatory speech by the President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. (AFP via The Australian) Law and crime The Federal Bureau of Investigation arrests suspected members of the computer hacking groups Lulzsec and Anonymous in the US cities of Phoenix, Arizona and San Francisco, California. (Fox News) Politics and elections The first President of Cape Verde, Aristides Pereira, dies in Portugal at the age of 87. (Washington Post) The Italian Chamber of Deputies rejects a request to arrest Marco Milanese, a former aide to the Minister of Economy and Finance, Giulio Tremonti, on corruption charges. (Bloomberg) Tens of thousands of students protest in the Chilean capital Santiago for increased education expenditure. (AP) Former television journalist Shelly Yachimovich is elected as the head of the Israeli Labor Party. (AP via Yahoo News) Science CERN researchers affiliated with the OPERA Experiment report experimental results that appear to show neutrinos exceeding the speed of light. (BBC) September 22, 2011 Wikinews articles News International offers £3 million phone-hacking settlement to family of murder victim 21 September 2011 (Wednesday) edit history watch Armed conflicts and attacks 2011 Yemeni uprising: Yemeni government forces break a recently-established ceasefire by firing mortar rounds at mourners at the funerals of protesters. (AP via The Australian) Parts of the Pakistani city of Quetta observe a shutdown in response to the killing of 29 Shiite protesters on Tuesday. (Daily Times) Arts and culture US rock band R.E.M. announce they are splitting up. (The Telegraph) Business and economy Google+, the social network service developed by search engine giant Google, is released to the general public. (Wall Street Journal via The Australian) The US Securities and Exchange Commission files a lawsuit against Spencer D. Mindlin alleging that he engaged in front-running, a form of insider trading, at the expense of his employer, Goldman Sachs. (SEC) Disasters Indonesian search and rescue agencies continue to search for survivors after a boat sinks off the coast of Bali, with 11 people confirmed dead and 14 missing. (Straits Times) Typhoon Roke bears down on northeastern Japan, with four people reported dead due to flooding. (Chicago Sun Times) The death toll from the 2011 Sikkim earthquake rises above 100. (News Limited) (Voice of America) International relations The governments of North Korea and South Korea meet but fail to reach an agreement on the resumption of Six-party talks on North Korea\'s nuclear weapons program. (AP via Fox News) South Korean religious leaders leave for North Korea on a rare visit. (Yonhap) Two American \"hikers,\" Shane Bauer and Josh Fattal, are set free on bail by Iran as a humanitarian gesture, after being detained in prison for over two years under allegations of espionage. (Chron) Turkey signs an accord with North Cyprus to explore for oil and gas in the Mediterranean in response to a decision by the Government of Cyprus to drill for oil. (AFP via Google) Law and crime Troy Davis case: The United States Supreme Court decides to delay the execution of Troy Davis, superseding the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles rejection of the request for death row clemency. (ABC News) (USA Today) Shortly thereafter, the United States Supreme Court refuses to delay the execution of Troy Davis; Davis\' execution goes ahead as scheduled. (Washington Post) (Atlanta Journal Constitution) Sports The Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) announces that the United States will host the 2015 UCI World Championships in Richmond, Virginia. (Richmond Times-Dispatch) (Associated Press) September 21, 2011 Wikinews articles Camp Pendleton, California: helicopter crash kills two US marines 20 September 2011 (Tuesday) edit history watch Armed conflicts and attacks 2011 Yemeni uprising: Rockets hit a protest camp in the Yemeni capital, Sanaa, killing at least two people. (Reuters) Burhanuddin Rabbani, the former President of Afghanistan, is killed in a suicide bombing at his home in Kabul while meeting with a Taliban delegation to discuss a possible peace deal. (Al-Jazeera), (AFP via The Australian) Gunmen in the Pakistan province of Baluchistan open fire on a bus carrying Shiite pilgrims to Iran, killing at least 25 people. (New York Times) A bombing attack in in the centre of the Turkish capital Ankara kills at least 3 people and injures 34. (New York Times) Arts and culture Gears of War 3, the final game in the acclaimed Gears of War video game franchise, goes on sale, with 20,000 game stores around the world opening at midnight for its release. (The Guardian) Business Qantas flights throughout Australia are disrupted by a four-hour strike by airport ground staff and baggage handlers. (Sydney Morning Herald) The International Monetary Fund warns of a possible global double-dip recession in the coming years. (Sky News) The world\'s 8th-largest search engine, Yandex, expands into Turkey, marking its first venture outside the Commonwealth of Independent States. (Total Telecom) Wadah Khanfar steps down as the head of the Al Jazeera news network, and is replaced by Sheikh Ahmad bin Jassim bin Mohammad Al Thani, a member of the Qatari royal family. (Financial Times) (Irish Times) (Al Jazeera) Disasters Floods and landslides caused by a week of heavy rain in the People\'s Republic of China have killed at least 57 people and made as many as a million people homeless. (BBC) An investigation by Russia\'s Interstate Aviation Committee into the fatal crash of RusAir Flight 9605 in June 2011 finds that the disaster, which killed 47 people, was caused by a combination of pilot error, an inadequate weather forecast and inadequate ground equipment. It is furthermore reported that the aircraft\'s navigator was intoxicated at the time of the crash.(Wall Street Journal) The road to the Indian town of Mangan reopens after the 2011 Sikkim earthquake, with the death toll expected to rise as rescuers reach the worst affected areas. (Times of India) The European Court of Human Rights rules that Russia did not abuse legal processes to destroy Yukos, once its largest oil company. (The Scotsman) 2011 Atlantic hurricane season: Tropical Storm Ophelia forms in the central Atlantic Ocean, with no storm warnings currently in place. (National Hurricane Centre via NOLA.com) International relations The African Union officially recognises the National Transitional Council as Libya\'s legitimate leadership. (AFP via Google) Law and crime A Norwegian judge orders Anders Behring Breivik, the perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks, to be kept in solitary confinement for four more weeks. (CNN) The United States military officially ends its policy of don\'t ask, don\'t tell, allowing homosexual personnel to publicly declare their sexual orientation without being dismissed. (New York Times) A group of Italian scientists go on trial for allegedly downplaying the risk of a major earthquake before the 2009 L\'Aquila earthquake, which killed 308 people. (The Independent) Mexican gunmen dump 35 bodies in the city of Boca del Rio, with at least some of the victims having links to organised crime. (AP via Bakersfield Now) Politics and elections Voters in Zambia go to the polls for a general election, with a close presidential race expected between incumbent Rupiah Banda and opposition leader Michael Sata. (Voice of America) September 20, 2011 Wikinews articles 19 September 2011 (Monday) edit history watch Armed conflict and attacks Terrorism in Pakistan: A bomb explodes outside the home of a senior police officer in Karachi, Pakistan, killing at least eight people. (AP via NineMSN) (AFP via Dawn) At least five people are killed and 21 injured after a bomb explodes in Peshawar. (Daily Times) Syrian activists and residents claim that the Syrian military have shot dead eight people, including six civilians, north of the city of Homs. (Reuters) Arts and culture The Montreal band Arcade Fire wins the 2011 Polaris Music Prize for best Canadian album for The Suburbs. (Canadian Press via Winnipeg Free Press) Business and economy Standard Poor’s lowers Italy\'s credit rating from A+ to A, due to concerns about its high level of debt and the stability of its government. (Bloomberg) (Reuters via Sydney Morning Herald) The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission files a lawsuit alleging that unnamed persons engaged in illegal insider trading in the two days before French company Technip announced its plan to buy U.S. company Global Industries. (Reuters) Disasters The United Nations launches an appeal for US$357 million (€307 million) of international aid for victims of the 2011 Sindh floods in Pakistan. (Radio Free Europe) At least 27 people are dead and dozens missing after heavy rains in the People\'s Republic of China. (AFP via Google News) Rescue efforts continue for the victims of the 2011 Sikkim earthquake, which has claimed at least 67 lives in India, Nepal and Tibet. (ABC News) An earthquake of approximately 5.8 magnitude, two lesser related quakes, and an accompanying series of landslides kill at least three people in a municipality 32 miles south of Guatemala City, Guatemala. (Huffington Post) A fire at a prison in Baghdad, Iraq kills 8 and injures a further 31. (Washington Post) Law and crime Authorities in Iran arrest 19 people allegedly involved in a $2.6 billion bank fraud. (AP via The Republic) The former Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, gives his first public interview about allegations of sexual assault made against him in May 2011, to French TV channel TF1. (CNN) Seven people are arrested in the United Kingdom city of Birmingham in relation to alleged involvement in an Islamic terrorist group. (The Independent) Politics and elections George Cadle Price, the first Prime Minister of Belize, dies at 92 following emergency surgery. (Go Jamaica) Sinn Féin nominate John O\'Dowd to replace Martin McGuinness on a temporary basis as deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland. (BBC) The President of the United States, Barack Obama, outlines a plan to cut US deficits by $3 trillion over 10 years, with half of the reductions coming from tax increases. (The Guardian) Sport In baseball, Mariano Rivera of the New York Yankees sets a record in Major League Baseball for career saves. (AP via Taiwan News) September 19, 2011 Wikinews articles More September 2011 events... Time: 05:26 UTC | Day: 25 September | Purge September 2011 >> S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 More September 2011 events... edit box About this page • Suggest a headline News about Wikipedia Ongoing events Disasters Horn of Africa famine Economic Global financial crisis European sovereign debt crisis Greek economic crisis Smartphone patents wars Medical HIV/AIDS in Africa Political Anti-austerity protests Greek protests 2011 Spanish protests Israeli social protests Arab Spring Bahraini uprising Post-Mubarak transition (following the revolution) Jordanian protests Libyan civil war Moroccan protests Syrian uprising Tunisian revolution Yemeni uprising Chilean student protests News International phone hacking scandal Scientific Expedition 29 Recent deaths September 23: Orlando Brown 22: Mansoor Ali Khan Pataudi 22: Aristides Pereira 21: Troy Davis 20: Burhanuddin Rabbani 19: Dolores Hope 18: Kurt Sanderling 17: Eleanor Mondale 17: Charles H. Percy 16: Kara Kennedy 15: Frances Bay 15: Otakar Vávra 14: Malcolm Wallop 13: Walter Bonatti 13: John Calley 13: Richard Hamilton 13: David Jull 13: DJ Mehdi 12: Alexander Galimov 11: Andy Whitfield 10: Cliff Robertson 8: Mary Fickett 8: Vo Chi Cong 7: Pavol Demitra 7: Alexander Karpovtsev 7: Igor Korolev 7: Stefan Liv 7: Brad McCrimmon 7: Karel Rachůnek 7: Ruslan Salei 7: Kārlis Skrastiņš 7: Josef Vašíček 7: Alexander Vasyunov 6: Hans Apel 6: Michael S. Hart 5: Salvatore Licitra 5: Bobby Rhine 4: Lee Roy Selmon 3: Sándor Képíró 3: Julio Casas Regueiro 2: Felipe Camiroaga 1: Liu Huang A-tao August 31: Wade Belak 29: David \"Honeyboy\" Edwards edit sidebar Ongoing conflicts Global War on Terror Terrorist incidents Operation Active Endeavour Operation Enduring Freedom War on Drugs Africa Libyan civil war Tunisian revolution Maghreb insurgency OEF - Trans Sahara Casamance conflict Niger Delta conflict Nigerian Sharia conflict South Kordofan conflict Lord\'s Resistance Army insurgency Somalia: Civil war War 2009- Piracy OEF - Horn of Africa Europe Basque conflict Real IRA North Caucasus insurgency Ingushetia civil war Middle East Iraqi insurgency Iran-Jundallah conflict Fatah–Hamas conflict Arab–Israeli conflict Israeli–Palestinian conflict Israeli–Lebanese conflict Palestinian political violence and rocket attacks Yemen: Terrorism and al-Qaeda crackdown South Yemen insurgency Shi’ite insurgency Kurdistan: Turkey–PKK conflict Iran–PJAK conflict Asia Afghanistan War Military operations Taliban insurgency Pakistan: Terrorism North-West War Balochistan conflict Drone attacks Sectarian violence India: Terrorism Jammu and Kashmir insurgency Naxalite-Maoist insurgency Northeast India insurgency Nagaland ethnic conflict Kashmir conflict Siachen conflict Korean maritime border incidents Southeast Asia: Laos insurgency Burma internal conflict Burma border clashes South Thailand insurgency Cambodian–Thai border dispute Philippines insurgency OEF - Philippines Papua conflict Americas Colombian conflict Plan Colombia FARC Mexican Drug War Mérida Initiative Peru internal conflict edit sidebar Elections Recent: September 11: Guatemala, President (1st round) and Parliament 15: Denmark, Parliament 17: Latvia, Parliament 18: Liechtenstein, Abortion referendum 20: Zambia, General Upcoming: September 24: United Arab Emirates, Parliament 25: France, Senate 29: Isle of Man, General 29 September–1 October: Seychelles, Parliament Upcoming: October 9: Poland, Parliament 9: Cameroon, President 9: Paraguay, Expatriate voting referendum 11: Liberia, General edit sidebar Trials Recently concluded Cambodia: Kang Kek Iew France: John Galliano Germany: John Demjanjuk Indonesia: Abu Bakar Bashir Netherlands: Geert Wilders United Kingdom: Levi Bellfield United States: Faisal Shahzad, Noshir Gowadia, Buju Banton, Barry Bonds, Raj Rajaratnam, Rod Blagojevich, Casey Anthony, Dominique Strauss-Kahn Ongoing Cambodia: Khmer Rouge Tribunal Canada: Russell Williams China: Organized crime in Chongqing France: Church of Scientology, Jacques Chirac Germany: Heinrich Boere Iraq: Supreme Criminal Tribunal Iran: Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani Malaysia: Anwar Ibrahim Netherlands: Thomas Lubanga (ICC), Radovan Karadžić (ICTY) Palau: Tommy Remengesau Peru: Joran van der Sloot Philippines: Andal Ampatuan, Jr. Russia: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Platon Lebedev Sierra Leone: Charles Taylor (SCFSL) Singapore: Tak Boleh Tahan Thailand: Thaksin Shinawatra Turkey: Ergenekon network United States: David Headley, Ahmed Ghailani, Jared Lee Loughner, Charles P. White, Roger Clemens Upcoming Egypt: Hosni Mubarak, Alaa Mubarak, Gamal Mubarak Sudan: Lubna al-Hussein Tunisia: Zine El Abidine Ben Ali United States: Viktor Bout, Allen Stanford, Nidal Malik Hasan, Conrad Murray, John Edwards, Javaris Crittenton edit sidebar Holidays and observances Recent edit sidebar Events by month[hide] 2011 · January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December Content listings Lists Featured content · Overviews · Portals · Lists · Outlines · Glossaries · Indexes Reference · Culture · Geography · Health · History · Mathematics · Nature · People · Philosophy · Religion · Society · Technology Academic disciplines · Anniversaries (today) · Countries and territories · Current events · People (deaths this year) · Timelines (centuries · decades) Indices A–Z index · Categories · Dewey Decimal classes · Library of Congress Classification · Roget\'s Thesaurus · Spoken articles · Wikipedia books Categories: 2011 by day | 2010 | Current events Log in / create accountPortalDiscussionReadView sourceView history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages Ænglisc العربية Aragonés Armãneashce অসমীয়া Asturianu Bân-lâm-gú ‪Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‬ Български Català Чӑвашла Cebuano Česky Dansk Deitsch Eesti Ελληνικά Español Esperanto Estremeñu Euskara Eʋegbe فارسی Føroyskt Français Gaeilge Galego ગુજરાતી 한국어 हिन्दी Ilokano Bahasa Indonesia Interlingua Ирон ქართული Қазақша Kernowek Kurdî Latina Lëtzebuergesch Limburgs Magyar മലയാളം मराठी Bahasa Melayu Монгол Dorerin Naoero Nederlands नेपाल भाषा 日本語 Occitan Papiamentu Piemontèis Polski Português Română Русский Shqip Slovenčina Slovenščina Ślůnski Српски / Srpski Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски Basa Sunda Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் ไทย Українська Tiếng Việt Volapük Võro Walon 文言 ייִדיש 粵語 Zeêuws 中文 This page was last modified on 15 January 2011 at 15:50. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us Privacy policyAbout WikipediaDisclaimersMobile view Wiki Loves Monuments: Photograph a monument, help Wikipedia and win New York City From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the city. For other uses, see New York City (disambiguation). \"New York, New York\" and \"NYC\" redirect here. For other uses, see New York, New York (disambiguation) and NYC (disambiguation). New York City — City — City of New York From top left: Midtown Manhattan, the United Nations Headquarters, the Statue of Liberty, Times Square, the Unisphere in Queens, and the Brooklyn Bridge with Lower Manhattan Flag Seal Nickname(s): The Big Apple, Gotham, Center of the Universe, The City That Never Sleeps,[1] The Capital of the World[2][3][4][5] Location in the state of New York New York City Location in the United States Coordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′WCoordinates: 40°43′N 74°00′W Country United States State New York Counties Bronx Kings New York Queens Richmond Settled 1624 Government - Type Mayor-Council - Body New York City Council - Mayor Michael Bloomberg (I)[6] Area - City 468.9 sq mi (1,214.4 km2) - Land 304.8 sq mi (789.4 km2) - Water 165.6 sq mi (428.8 km2) - Urban 3,352.6 sq mi (8,683.2 km2) - Metro 6,720 sq mi (17,405 km2) Elevation 33 ft (10 m) Population (April 1, 2010 United States Census)[7][8] - City 8,175,133 - Density 27,532/sq mi (10,630/km2) - Urban 18,223,567 - Urban density 5,435.7/sq mi (2,098.7/km2) - Metro 18,897,109 - Metro density 2,812.1/sq mi (1,085.7/km2) Demonym New Yorker Time zone EST (UTC-5) - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4) ZIP codes 100xx-104xx, 11004-05, 111xx-114xx, 116xx Area code(s) 212, 718, 917, 646, 347, 929 Website nyc.gov New York is the most populous city in the United States[9] and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world.[10][11][12] New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and entertainment. The home of the United Nations Headquarters,[13] New York is an important center for international affairs and is widely deemed the cultural capital of the world.[14][15][16][17][18] The city is also referred to as New York City or the City of New York[19] to distinguish it from the state of New York, of which it is a part.[20] Located on one of the world\'s largest natural harbors,[21] New York City consists of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island.[22] With a 2010 United States Census population of 8,175,133[7] distributed over a land area of just 305 square miles (790 km2),[23][24][25] New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States.[26] As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.[27] The New York City Metropolitan Area\'s population is the United States\' largest, estimated at 18.9 million people distributed over 6,720 square miles (17,400 km2),[8][28] and is also part of the most populous combined statistical area in the United States, containing 22.2 million people as of 2009 Census estimates.[29] New York is the most highly googled location in the world; registering 4.6 billion searches as of September 2011.[30] New York traces its roots to its 1624 founding as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic, and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.[31] The city and its surrounds came under English control in 1664[32][33] and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York.[34][35] New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790.[36] It has been the country\'s largest city since 1790.[37] The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[38] Many districts and landmarks in New York City have become well known to its nearly 50 million annual visitors.[39] Times Square, iconified as \"The Crossroads of the World\",[40][41][42][43] is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theater district,[44] one of the world\'s busiest pedestrian intersections,[45] and a major center of the world\'s entertainment industry.[46] The city hosts many world renowned bridges, skyscrapers,[47] and parks. New York City\'s financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan, functions as the financial capital of the world[48][49][50][51][52][53][54] and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world\'s largest stock exchange by total market capitalization of its listed companies.[55] Manhattan\'s real estate market is among the most prized and expensive in the world.[56] Manhattan\'s Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere.[57] Unlike most global rapid transit systems, the New York City Subway is designed to provide 24/7 service.[58] Numerous colleges and universities are located in New York, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which are ranked among the top 100 in the world.[59] Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Geography 2.1 Climate 2.2 Environment 3 Cityscape 3.1 Architecture 3.2 Parks 3.2.1 National Park System 3.2.2 New York State Parks 3.2.3 New York City Department of Parks and Recreation 3.3 Boroughs 4 Culture and contemporary life 4.1 Entertainment and performing arts 4.2 Tourism 4.3 Media 4.4 Cuisine 4.5 Accent 4.6 Sports 5 Economy 6 Demographics 7 Government 8 Crime 9 Education 10 Transportation 11 Sister cities 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links History Main article: History of New York City The region was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery in 1524[60] by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown, who named it \"Nouvelle Angoulême\" (New Angoulême).[61] European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement, later called \"Nieuw Amsterdam\" (New Amsterdam), on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Lenape in 1626 for a value of 60 guilders[62] (about $1000 in 2006);[63] a disproved legend says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.[64][65] In 1664, the city was surrendered to the English and renamed \"New York\" after the English Duke of York and Albany.[66] At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run (then a much more valuable asset) in exchange for the English controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by the arrival of the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670.[67] By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200.[68] In 1702, the city lost 10% of its population to yellow fever.[69] New York underwent no fewer than seven important yellow fever epidemics from 1702 to 1800.[70] New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York. New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule. The city hosted the influential John Peter Zenger trial in 1735, helping to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by George II of Great Britain as King\'s College in Lower Manhattan.[71] The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October of 1765 as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, skirmishing over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. During the American Revolution, the largest battle of the war, the Battle of Long Island, was fought in August 1776 entirely within the modern day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle, in which the Americans were routed, leaving subsequent smaller engagements following in its wake, the city became the British military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees, until the war ended in 1783. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church.[72] The assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York the national capital in 1785, shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. In 1789 the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time, and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street.[73] By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States. In the 19th century, the city was transformed by immigration and development.[74] A visionary development proposal, the Commissioners\' Plan of 1811, expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan, and the 1819 opening of the Erie Canal connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the North American interior.[75] Local politics fell under the domination of Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish immigrants.[76] Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the old merchant aristocracy lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which became the first landscaped park in an American city in 1857. A significant free-black population also existed in Manhattan and Brooklyn. Slaves had been held in New York through 1827, but during the 1830s New York became a center of interracial abolitionist activism in the North. New York\'s black population was over 16,000 in 1840.[77] The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, and by 1860, one in four New Yorkers – over 200,000 – had been born in Ireland.[78] Bird\'s-eye view print of Manhattan New York City, 1873 Anger at military conscription during the American Civil War (1861–1865) led to the Draft Riots of 1863, one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.[79] In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens.[80] The opening of the subway in 1904 helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. However, this development did not come without a price. In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city\'s worst industrial disaster until the 9/11 World Trade Center disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies\' Garment Workers\' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.[81] Midtown Manhattan, New York City, from Rockefeller Center, 1932 New York\'s nonwhite population was 36,620 in 1890.[82] In the 1920s, New York City was a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. By 1916, New York City was home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance flourished during the era of Prohibition, coincident with a larger economic boom that saw the skyline develop with the construction of competing skyscrapers. New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in early 1920s, overtaking London, and the metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in early 1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history.[83] The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.[84] Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America\'s place as the world\'s dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters (completed in 1950) emphasized New York\'s political influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York\'s displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.[85] The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated National Historic Landmark as the site of the 1969 Stonewall Rebellion.[86] In the 1960s, New York City began to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city\'s economic health in the 1980s, New York\'s crime rate continued a steep uphill climb through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s.[87] By the 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to increased police presence and gentrification, and many American transplants and waves of new immigrants arrived from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city\'s economy and New York\'s population reached an all-time high in the 2000 census. The city was one of the sites of the September 11, 2001 attacks, when nearly 3,000 people died in the destruction of the World Trade Center.[88] A new 1 World Trade Center, a World Trade Center Memorial and three other office towers, are being built on the site and are scheduled for completion by 2014. The new World Trade Center site skyscrapers, memorial, and a new transportation hub that are under construction at the site will bring about a more modern Lower Manhattan and restore the skyline of New York City.[89] Geography Main articles: Geography of New York City and Geography of New York Harbor Satellite image showing the core of the New York metropolitan area New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston.[90] The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density. The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary.[91] The Hudson separates the city from New Jersey. The East River – a tidal strait – flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.[92] The city\'s land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s.[93] Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, especially in Manhattan.[94] The city\'s total area is 468.9 square miles (1,214 km2). 164.1 square miles (425 km2) of this are water and 304.8 square miles (789 km2) is land.[24][25] The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine.[95] The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.[96] Climate Under the Köppen climate classification New York City has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and using the 0 °C (32 °F) threshold it is the northernmost major city on the continent with such categorization. The area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, and averages 58% of possible sunshine annually,[97] accumulating 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine per annum.[98] Winters are cold and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean. Yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding of the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities located at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The average temperature in January, the area\'s coldest month, is 32.1 °F (0.1 °C). However temperatures in winter could for a few days be as low as 10 °F (−12 °C) and as high as 50 °F (10 °C).[99] Spring and autumn are unpredictable, and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically hot and humid with a July average of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C). Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, and temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 18 days each summer and can exceed 100 °F (38 °C) every 4–6 years.[100][101] The city receives 49.7 inches (1,260 mm) of precipitation annually, which is fairly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall for 1971 to 2000 has been 22.4 inches (57 cm), but this usually varies considerably from year to year.[101] Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area, but are not unheard of and always have the potential to strike the area. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 to 106 °F (-26 to 41 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934 and July 9, 1936, respectively.[102] [hide]Climate data for New York (Central Park) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 72 (22.2) 75 (23.9) 86 (30) 96 (35.6) 99 (37.2) 101 (38.3) 106 (41.1) 104 (40) 102 (38.9) 94 (34.4) 84 (28.9) 75 (23.9) 106 (41.1) Average high °F (°C) 38.0 (3.33) 41.0 (5) 49.8 (9.89) 60.7 (15.94) 70.9 (21.61) 79.0 (26.11) 84.2 (29) 82.4 (28) 74.7 (23.72) 63.5 (17.5) 53.1 (11.72) 42.9 (6.06) 61.7 (16.5) Average low °F (°C) 26.2 (−3.2) 28.1 (−2.2) 35.1 (1.72) 44.2 (6.78) 54.2 (12.33) 63.3 (17.39) 68.8 (20.44) 67.7 (19.83) 60.3 (15.72) 49.6 (9.78) 41.0 (5) 31.6 (−0.22) 47.5 (8.61) Record low °F (°C) −6 (−21.1) −15 (−26.1) 3 (−16.1) 12 (−11.1) 28 (−2.2) 44 (6.7) 52 (11.1) 50 (10) 39 (3.9) 28 (−2.2) 7 (−13.9) −13 (−25) −15 (−26.1) Precipitation inches (mm) 4.13 (104.9) 3.15 (80) 4.37 (111) 4.28 (108.7) 4.69 (119.1) 3.84 (97.5) 4.62 (117.3) 4.22 (107.2) 4.23 (107.4) 3.85 (97.8) 4.36 (110.7) 3.95 (100.3) 49.69 (1,262.1) Snowfall inches (cm) 8.3 (21.1) 7.1 (18) 3.4 (8.6) .4 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) .4 (1) 2.6 (6.6) 22.2 (56.4) % Humidity 63.8 63.0 62.3 60.9 69.4 71.7 70.7 73.2 74.7 71.6 68.3 66.6 68.02 Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.3 9.4 10.7 11.1 11.4 10.8 10.2 9.5 9.1 8.3 9.3 10.6 120.7 Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.1 2.9 1.6 .2 0 0 0 0 0 0 .3 1.8 10.9 Sunshine hours 162.7 163.1 212.5 225.6 256.6 257.3 268.2 268.2 219.3 211.2 151.0 139.0 2,534.7 Source: NOAA [100][103] Environment Main articles: Environmental issues in New York City and Food and water in New York City Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States, and gasoline consumption in the city is the same rate as the national average in the 1920s.[104] The city\'s high level of mass transit use saved 1.8 billion US gallons (6,800,000 m3) of oil in 2006; New York City saves half of all the oil saved by transit nationwide.[105] The city\'s population density, low automobile use and high transit utility make it among the most energy efficient cities in the United States.[106] Its greenhouse gas emissions are 7.1 metric tons per person compared with the national average of 24.5.[107] New Yorkers are collectively responsible for 1% of the nation\'s greenhouse gas emissions[107] though they comprise 2.7% of the nation\'s population. The average New Yorker consumes less than half the electricity used by a resident of San Francisco and nearly one-quarter the electricity consumed by a resident of Dallas.[108] As of July 2010 the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis in service, the largest number in any city in North America. In recent years, the city has focused on reducing its environmental impact. Large amounts of concentrated pollution in New York has led to a high incidence of asthma and other respiratory conditions among the city\'s residents.[109] The city government is required to purchase only the most energy-efficient equipment for use in city offices and public housing.[110] New York has the largest clean air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the country,[111] and also, by mid 2010 the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York\'s taxi fleet in service, the most in any city in North America.[112] The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is also a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others.[113] The city is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed.[114] As a result of the watershed\'s integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States with drinking water pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.[115] New York is the only US city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car.[116] Cityscape Midtown Manhattan skyline during the day Midtown Manhattan skyline at night Lower Manhattan skyline during the day Lower Manhattan skyline at night Architecture Main article: Architecture of New York City Further information: List of tallest buildings in New York City The Empire State Building and Chrysler Building, built in Art Deco style. Manhattan\'s skyline with its many skyscrapers is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of August 2008, New York City has 5,538 highrise buildings,[117] with 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). This is more than any other city in United States, and second in the world, behind Hong Kong.[118] New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early gothic revival skyscraper built with massively scaled gothic detailing. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.[119] The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930), with its tapered top and steel spire, reflected the zoning requirements. The building has distinctive ornamentation such as replicas at the corners of the 61st floor of the 1928 Chrysler eagle hood ornaments.[120] A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building\'s structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers.[113] New York\'s large residential districts are often defined by the classic brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and tenements that were built during a period of rapid growth from 1870 to 1930.[121] Stone and brick became the city\'s building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.[122] A distinctive feature of many of the city\'s buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes.[123] Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens.[124] Parks Main article: Parks and recreation in New York City The Statue of Liberty National Monument, in New York Harbor, with the former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in the background. New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches.[125] This parkland complements tens of thousands of acres of federal and state parkland. National Park System Gateway National Recreation Area is over 26,000 acres (10,521.83 ha) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City; the New York State portion includes the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge in Brooklyn and Queens, over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, islands and water that includes most of Jamaica Bay. Also in Queens the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island with historic pre-Civil war era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park with beaches, trails and marina also on Staten Island. The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are located both in the states of New York and New Jersey. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, located in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial (\"Grant\'s Tomb\"); African Burial Ground National Monument; Hamilton Grange National Memorial; and the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is a designated National Historic Landmark as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement.[126] New York State Parks There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park, a natural area which includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.[127] New York City Department of Parks and Recreation Central Park an 883-acre (3.57 km2) park in Manhattan, is the most visited city park in the United States, with 25 million visitors each year.[128] The park contains a myriad of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onasis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre, and the historic Carousel. Prospect Park in Brooklyn has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake and extensive woodlands. Located within the park is the historic Battle Pass, which figured prominently in the Battle of Long Island.[129] Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, the city\'s third largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World\'s Fair and the 1964 World\'s Fair. Over a fifth of the Bronx\'s area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is given over to open space and parks, including Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the Bronx Zoo and the New York Botanical Gardens.[130] In Staten Island, the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution, attended by Benjamin Franklin representing the Americans and Lord Howe representing the British Crown. Located within the park is the historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City. Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States. Boroughs Main articles: Borough (New York City) and Neighborhoods of New York City New York\'s five boroughs overview Jurisdiction Population Land area Borough of County of 1 April 2010 Census square miles square km Manhattan New York 1,585,873 23 59 The Bronx Bronx 1,385,108 42 109 Brooklyn Kings 2,504,700 71 183 Queens Queens 2,230,722 109 283 Staten Island Richmond 468,730 58 151 City of New York 8,175,133 303 786 State of New York 19,378,102 47,214 122,284 Source: United States Census Bureau [7][26][131] New York City is composed of five boroughs.[132] Each borough is coextensive with a respective county of New York State as shown below. Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States. Manhattan (New York County; 2009 Est. Pop.: 1,629,054)[133] is the most densely populated borough and is home to Central Park and most of the city\'s skyscrapers. The borough is the financial center of the city and contains the headquarters of many major corporations, the UN, a number of important universities, and many cultural attractions. Manhattan is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. The Bronx (Bronx County: Pop. 1,397,287)[133] is New York City\'s northernmost borough, the location of Yankee Stadium, home of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City.[134] Except for a small section of Manhattan known as Marble Hill, the Bronx is the only section of the city that is part of the United States mainland. It is home to the Bronx Zoo, the largest metropolitan zoo in the United States, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and is home to over 6,000 animals.[135] The Bronx is the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture.[136] Brooklyn (Kings County: Pop. 2,567,098),[133] on the western tip of Long Island, is the city\'s most populous borough and was an independent city until 1898. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods and a distinctive architectural heritage. It is also the only borough outside of Manhattan with a distinct downtown neighborhood. The borough features a long beachfront and Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.[137] Queens (Queens County: Pop. 2,306,712)[133] is geographically the largest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States,[138] and may overtake Brooklyn as the city\'s most populous borough due to its growth. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, today the borough is predominantly residential and middle class. Queens County is the only large county in the United States where the median income among African Americans, approximately $52,000 a year, is higher than that of White Americans.[139] Queens is the site of Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets, and annually hosts the U.S. Open tennis tournament. Additionally, it is home to two of the three major airports serving the New York metropolitan area, LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.) Staten Island (Richmond County: Pop. 491,730)[133] is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry. The Staten Island Ferry is one of the most popular tourist attractions in New York City as it provides unsurpassed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and lower Manhattan. Located in central Staten Island, the 2,500 acres (10 km2) Greenbelt has some 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city.[140] Designated in 1984 to protect the island\'s natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks. Culture and contemporary life Main articles: Culture of New York City and List of people from New York City The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the largest museums in the world. “ Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather ” —Tom Wolfe[141] Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city\'s punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. The city prominently excels in its spheres of art, cuisine, dance, music, opera, theater, independent film, fashion, museums, and literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop,[136] punk,[142] salsa, disco, freestyle, and Tin Pan Alley in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world.[143][144][145] The city is also widely celebrated in popular lore, featured frequently as the setting for books, movies (see New York in film), and television programs. Entertainment and performing arts See also: Music of New York City Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts The city is also prominent in the American film industry. Manhatta (1920), an early avant-garde film, was filmed in the city.[146] Today, New York City is the second largest center for the film industry in the United States. The city has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes.[147] The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts.[147] Wealthy industrialists in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. Strongly influenced by the city\'s immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. Today these productions are a staple of the New York theater scene. The city\'s 39 largest theaters (with more than 500 seats) are collectively known as \"Broadway,\" after the major thoroughfare that crosses the Times Square theater district.[148] This area is sometimes referred to as The Main Stem, The Great White Way or The Realto. Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is home to 12 influential arts organizations, including Jazz at Lincoln Center, Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic. New York City Ballet, the Vivian Beaumont Theatre, the Juilliard School and Alice Tully Hall. It is the largest performing arts center in the United States. Central Park SummerStage presents performances of free plays and music in Central Park. Tourism Main articles: Tourism in New York City and List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City Times Square has the highest annual attendance rate of any tourist attraction in the US.[149] Tourism is one of New York City\'s most vital industries, with more than 40 million combined domestic and international tourists visiting each year in the past five years.[150] Major destinations include the Empire State Building; Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; Broadway theater productions; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; Times Square; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village, the Macy\'s Thanksgiving Day Parade, the St. Patrick\'s Day parade, seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime, the Tribeca Film Festival, and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Special experiences outside the key tourist areas of the city include, but are not limited to the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island; and the New York Botanical Garden. In 2010, New York City had a record number of tourists with 48.7 million.[151] Since the United States economy is still recovering, Mayor Michael Bloomberg\'s goal is to break the record again in 2012 by drawing more than 50 million tourists.[152] Media Main article: Media in New York City Rockefeller Center, home to NBC Studios New York is a center for the television, advertising, music, newspaper, and book publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America (followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, and Toronto).[153] Some of the city\'s media conglomerates include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, and Viacom. Seven of the world\'s top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York.[154] Two of the \"Big Four\" record labels\' headquarters, are in New York City; Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. Universal Music Group and EMI also have offices in New York. One-third of all American independent films are produced in New York.[155] More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city[155] and the book-publishing industry employs about 25,000 people.[156] Two of the three national daily newspapers in the United States are New York papers: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. Major tabloid newspapers in the city include: The New York Daily News which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson[157] and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton.[158] The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages.[159] El Diario La Prensa is New York\'s largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation.[160] The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice is the largest alternative newspaper The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city\'s economy. The four major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, FOX, and NBC. Many cable channels are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, and Comedy Central. In 2005, there were more than 100 television shows taped in New York City.[161] New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971.[162] WNET is the city\'s major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.[163] The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV,[164] that has produ
Bill Gates, (gates@microsoft.us), 25.09.2011 - 04:36
John F. Kennedy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia \"JFK\", \"John Kennedy\", and \"Jack Kennedy\" redirect here. For other uses, see JFK (disambiguation), John Kennedy (disambiguation), and Jack Kennedy (disambiguation). John F. Kennedy 35th President of the United States In office January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Vice President Lyndon Johnson Preceded by Dwight Eisenhower Succeeded by Lyndon Johnson United States Senator from Massachusetts In office January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960 Preceded by Henry Lodge Succeeded by Benjamin Smith Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts\'s 11th district In office January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953 Preceded by James Curler Succeeded by Tip O\'Neill Personal details Born May 29, 1917 Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S. Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46) Dallas, Texas, U.S. Political party Democratic Party Spouse(s) Jacqueline Bouvier Children Arabella Caroline John Patrick Alma mater Harvard College Profession Author Religion Roman Catholicism Signature Military service Allegiance United States Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 1941–1945 Rank Lieutenant Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 Battles/wars World War II • Solomon Islands campaign Awards Navy and Marine Corps Medal Purple Heart American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (3 bronze stars) World War II Victory Medal[1] John Fitzgerald \"Jack\" Kennedy pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 and Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts\'s 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43,[2][3] the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first president to have been born in the 20th century.[4] Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.[5] Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the possibility of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.[6] Contents [hide] 1 Early life and education 2 Military service 3 Congressional career 3.1 House of Representatives 3.2 Senate 4 1960 presidential election 5 Presidency 5.1 Foreign policy 5.1.1 Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion 5.1.2 Cuban Missile Crisis 5.1.3 Latin America and communism 5.1.4 Peace Corps 5.1.5 Southeast Asia 5.1.6 American University speech 5.1.7 West Berlin speech 5.1.8 Israel 5.1.9 Iraq 5.1.10 Ireland 5.1.11 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 5.2 Domestic policy 5.2.1 Economy 5.2.2 Federal and military death penalty 5.2.3 Civil rights 5.2.4 Civil liberties 5.2.5 Immigration 5.2.6 Space program 5.2.7 Native American relations 6 Assassination 6.1 Funeral 7 Administration, Cabinet and judicial appointments 1961–1963 7.1 Judicial appointments 7.1.1 Supreme Court 7.1.2 Other courts 8 Image, social life and family 9 Ancestors 10 Legacy 10.1 Eponyms 10.2 Memorials 11 Coat of arms 12 Media 13 In other media and popular culture 14 See also 15 Footnotes 16 References 17 External links Early life and education John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts on Tuesday, May 29, 1917, at 3:00 pm,[7] the second son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Fitzgerald; Rose, in turn, was the eldest child of John \"Honey Fitz\" Fitzgerald, a prominent Boston political figure who was the city\'s mayor and a three-term member of Congress. Kennedy lived in Brookline for ten years and attended Edward Devotion School, Noble and Greenough Lower School, and the Dexter School, through 4th grade. In 1927, the family moved to 5040 Independence Avenue in Riverdale, Bronx, New York City; two years later, they moved to 294 Pondfield Road in Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Scout Troop 2 (and was the first Boy Scout to become President).[8] Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannisport, Massachusetts, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida. For the 5th through 7th grade, Kennedy attended Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys. For 8th grade in September 1930, the 13-year old Kennedy attended Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy was sent to The Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, for his 9th through 12th grade years. His older brother Joe Jr., was already at Choate, two years ahead of him, a football star and leading student in the school. Jack spent his first years at Choate in his brother\'s shadow, and compensated for this with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie. Their most notorious stunt was to explode a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the ensuing chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain \"muckers\" who would \"spit in our sea\". The defiant Jack Kennedy took the cue and named his group \"The Muckers Club\", which included roommate and friend Kirk LeMoyne \"Lem\" Billings. While at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems, culminating in 1934 with his emergency hospitalization at Yale - New Haven Hospital. In June 1934, he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota and diagnosed with colitis. Kennedy graduated from Choate in June 1935. For the school yearbook, of which he had been business manager, Kennedy was voted the \"Most likely to Succeed\".[9] In September 1935, he made his first trip abroad, with his parents and sister Kathleen, to London, with the intent of studying at the London School of Economics (LSE) as his older brother Joe had done. There is uncertainty about what he did at LSE before returning to America in October 1935, when he enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University. He was then hospitalized for two months of observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He convalesced further at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach, then spent the spring of 1936 working as a ranch hand on a 40,000-acre (160 km2) cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona. That summer he raced sailboats at the Kennedy home in Hyannisport. In September 1936, Kennedy enrolled at Harvard College, where he produced that year\'s annual \"Freshman Smoker\", called by a reviewer \"an elaborate entertainment, which included in its cast outstanding personalities of the radio, screen and sports world\".[10] He tried out for the football, golf, and swim teams and earned a spot on the varsity swim team.[11] In July 1937, Kennedy sailed to France, with his convertible on board, and spent ten weeks driving through Europe with Billings. In June 1938, Kennedy sailed overseas with his father and brother Joe to work with his father, Roosevelt\'s U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James\'s, at the American embassy in London. In August the family went to a villa near Cannes. In 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East in preparation for his Harvard senior honors thesis. He then went to Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, 1939, the family was in the House of Commons for speeches endorsing the United Kingdom\'s declaration of war on Germany. Kennedy was sent as his father\'s representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the U.S. from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight. As an upperclassman at Harvard, Kennedy became a more serious student and developed an interest in political philosophy. In his junior year he made the Dean’s List.[12] In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, \"Appeasement in Munich\", about British participation in the Munich Agreement. He initially intended his thesis to be private, but his father encouraged him to publish it. He graduated from Harvard College with a S.B. cum laude in international affairs in 1940.[12] His thesis, published that year as a book entitled Why England Slept, became a bestseller.[13] Kennedy enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.[when?] In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as an American ambassador and then traveled throughout South America. Military service Main article: Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 In September 1941, after medical disqualification by the Army for his chronic lower back problems, Kennedy joined the U.S. Navy, with the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), former naval attaché to Joseph Kennedy.[14] Kennedy was an ensign serving in the office of the Secretary of the Navy when the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred. He then attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center, was assigned duty in Panama and later in the Pacific theater where he earned the rank of lieutenant, commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat.[15] LTJG Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109 On August 2, 1943, Kennedy\'s boat, PT-109, along with PT-162 and PT-169, were ordered to continue nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands,[16] when it was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri.[17] Kennedy gathered his surviving crew members together in the water around the wreckage, to vote on whether to \"fight or surrender\". Kennedy stated, \"There\'s nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose.\" Shunning surrender, the men swam towards a small island.[18] Kennedy, despite re-injury to his back in the collision, towed a badly burned crewman through the water with a life jacket strap clenched between his teeth.[19] He towed the wounded man to the island and later to a second island from where his crew was subsequently rescued.[20] For these actions, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal with the following citation: For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1–2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore. His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. In October 1943, Kennedy took command of a PT boat converted into a gun boat, PT-59, which in November took part in a Marine rescue on Choiseul Island.[21] Kennedy was honorably discharged in early 1945, just prior to Japan\'s surrender. Kennedy\'s other decorations in World War II included the Purple Heart, American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze service stars, and the World War II Victory Medal.[1] When later asked by a reporter how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: \"It was involuntary. They sank my boat.\"[22] Congressional career House of Representatives While Kennedy was still serving, his older brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. was killed in action on August 12, 1944 while part of Operation Aphrodite. Since Joe Jr. had been the family\'s political standard-bearer,[23] the task now fell on John. In 1946, U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in the strong Democratic 10th Congressional district in Massachusetts to become mayor of Boston. Kennedy ran for the seat, beating his Republican opponent by a large margin; this, despite not having previously included politics in his career planning. He was a congressman for six years but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President Harry S. Truman and the rest of the Democratic Party. Senate In 1952, he defeated incumbent Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. for the U.S. Senate. The following year he was married to wife Jacqueline.[24] Kennedy underwent several spinal operations over the following two years, was at times critically ill and received Catholic last rites, and was often absent from the Senate. During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage, a book about U.S. Senators who risked their careers for their personal beliefs, and which received the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957.[25] Rumors that this work was co-authored by his close adviser and speechwriter, Ted Sorensen, were confirmed in Sorensen\'s 2008 autobiography.[26] At the 1956 Democratic National Convention, Kennedy was nominated for Vice President, for the presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson, but finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. Kennedy received national exposure from that episode; his father thought it just as well that his son lost, due to the political debility of his Catholicism, and the strength of the Eisenhower ticket. One of the matters demanding Kennedy\'s attention in the Senate was President Eisenhower\'s bill for the Civil Rights Act of 1957[27] Kennedy cast a procedural vote on this which was considered by some as an appeasement of Southern Democratic opponents of the bill.[27] Kennedy did vote for Title III of the act, which would have given the Attorney General powers to enjoin, but Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson agreed to let the provision die as a compromise measure.[28] Kennedy also voted for Title IV, termed the \"Jury Trial Amendment\". Many civil rights advocates at the time criticized that vote as one which would weaken the act.[29] A final compromise bill, which Kennedy supported, was passed in September 1957.[30][31] In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin. Senator Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family; Joseph Kennedy, Sr. was a leading McCarthy supporter, Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy\'s subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy. In 1954, when the Senate voted to censure McCarthy, Kennedy had drafted, but not delivered, a speech supporting the censure, but was in the hospital. Though absent, he could have participated procedurally by \"pairing\" his vote against that of another senator, but did not do so. He never indicated how he would have voted, but the episode damaged Kennedy\'s support in the liberal community, including Eleanor Roosevelt, in the 1956 and 1960 elections.[32] 1960 presidential election Main article: United States presidential election, 1960 On January 2, 1960, Kennedy initiated his campaign for President in the Democratic primary election, where he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon. Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia, Morse in Maryland and Oregon, as well as token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana, and Nebraska. Kennedy made a point of visiting a coal mine in West Virginia; most miners and others in that predominantly conservative, Protestant state were quite wary of Kennedy\'s Roman Catholicism. His victory in West Virginia confirmed his broad popular appeal. At the Democratic Convention, he gave his well-known \"New Frontier\" speech, saying: \"For the problems are not all solved and the battles are not all won—and we stand today on the edge of a New Frontier ... But the New Frontier of which I speak is not a set of promises—it is a set of challenges. It sums up not what I intend to offer the American people, but what I intend to ask of them.\"[33] John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin, March 1960 With Humphrey and Morse eliminated, Kennedy\'s main opponent at the Los Angeles convention was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Kennedy overcame this formal challenge as well as informal ones from Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, Stuart Symington, as well as several favorite sons, and on July 13 the Democratic convention nominated Kennedy as its candidate. Kennedy asked Johnson to be his Vice Presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy\'s own staff, including brother Robert. He needed Johnson\'s strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916. Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy\'s Roman Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his being Catholic would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960, \"I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters – and the Church does not speak for me.\"[34] Kennedy questioned rhetorically whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic, and once stated that, \"No one asked me my religion [serving the Navy] in the South Pacific.\"[35] In September and October, Kennedy appeared with Republican candidate Richard Nixon, then Vice President, in the first televised U.S. presidential debates in U.S. history. During these programs, Nixon, with a sore injured leg and his \"five o\'clock shadow\", looked tense, uncomfortable, and perspiring, while Kennedy, choosing to avail himself of makeup services, appeared relaxed, leading the huge television audience to favor Kennedy as the winner. Radio listeners either thought Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.[36] The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history—the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in politics.[25] After the first debate Kennedy\'s campaign gained momentum and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls. On Tuesday, November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century. In the national popular vote Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College he won 303 votes to Nixon\'s 219 (269 were needed to win). Another 14 electors from Mississippi and Alabama refused to support Kennedy because of his support for the civil rights movement; they voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia. He was the youngest man elected president, succeeding Eisenhower who was then the oldest (Ronald Reagan surpassed Eisenhower as the oldest president in 1981).[37] Presidency Wikisource has original text related to this article: John F. Kennedy\'s Inaugural Address See also: Timeline of the presidency of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President at noon on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying, \"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.\" He also asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the \"common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.\" He added: \"All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.\" In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: \"Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.\"[38] In its scope, the address also reflected Kennedy’s confidence that his administration would chart a historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through the early years of his administration.[39] Kennedy brought to the White House a stark contrast in organization compared to the decision making structure of the former general, Eisenhower; and he wasted no time in dismantling it.[40] Kennedy preferred the organizational structure of a wheel, with all the spokes leading to the president. He was ready and willing to make the increased number of quick decisions required in such an environment, and did a monumental job of selecting his cabinet and other appointments, some experienced and some not. In those cases of inexperience, he stated, \"we can learn our jobs together\".[41] There were a couple instances where the president got ahead of himself, as when he announced in a cabinet meeting, without prior notice, that Edward Lansdale would be Ambassador to South Vietnam, a decision which Secretary of State Rusk later had Kennedy alter.[42] There was also the rapid appointment of Harris Wofford who was summoned and arrived at the White House for swearing in, without knowing the position he was to assume.[43] Kennedy further demonstrated his decision making agility with Congress and his staff. Much to the chagrin of his economic advisors who wanted him to reduce taxes, he quickly agreed to a balanced budget pledge when this was needed in exchange for votes to expand the membership of the House Rules Committee in order to give the Democrats a majority in setting the legislative agenda.[44] The president insisted on a focus upon immediate and specific issues facing the administration, and quickly voiced his impatience with ponderings of deeper meanings. Deputy national security advisor, Walt Whitman Rostow, once began a diatribe about the growth of communism and Kennedy abruptly cut him off, asking, \"What do you want me to do about that today?\"[45] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy administration Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy during his presidency President Kennedy\'s foreign policy was dominated by American-Soviet confrontations, manifested by proxy contests in the early stage of the Cold War. In 1961 Kennedy anxiously anticipated a summit with Nikita Khrushchev. Unfortunately, he [Kennedy] started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on Cold War confrontation in early 1961. The speech was intended for domestic audiences in the Soviet Union, but Kennedy interpreted it as a personal challenge. His mistake helped raise tensions going into the Vienna Summit.[46] On the way to the summit was a stop in Paris in June to meet Charles de Gaulle, whose advice to Kennedy was to expect and ignore the abrasive style of Khrushchev. The French president was nationalistic, and disdainful of the United States\' presumed influence in Europe, in his talks with Kennedy. Nevertheless de Gaulle was quite impressed with the young president and family. Kennedy picked up on this in his speech in Paris, saying he would be remembered as \"the man who accompanied Jackie Kennedy to Paris.\"[47] On June 4, 1961 the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna and left the meetings angry and disappointed that he had allowed the Premier to bully him, despite warnings received. Khrushchev for his part was impressed with the president\'s intelligence but thought him weak. Kennedy did succeed in conveying the bottom line to Khrushchev on the most sensitive issue before them, a proposed treaty between Moscow and East Berlin. He made it clear that any such treaty which interfered with U.S access rights in West Berlin would be regarded as an act of war.[48] Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Kennedy and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the White House Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962 Shortly after the president returned home, the U.S.S.R. announced an intent to sign a treaty with East Berlin, abrogating any third party occupation rights in either sector of the city. A depressed and angry president then assumed his obligation was to prepare the country for nuclear war as the only option, and which he then personally thought had a one in five chance of occurring.[49] In the weeks immediately after the Vienna summit, more than 20 thousand people fled from East Berlin to the western sector in reaction to statements from the U.S.S.R. Kennedy began intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson took the lead in recommending a military buildup with NATO allies as the appropriate response.[50] In a July 1961 speech, Kennedy announced his decision to add $3.25 billion to the defense budget, along with over 200 thousand additional troops for the military, saying an attack on West Berlin would be taken as an attack on the U.S. The speech received an 85% approval rating.[51] The following month, the U.S.S.R. and East Berlin officials began blocking any further passage of East Berliners into West Berlin, erecting barbed wire fences across the city, which were quickly upgraded to the Berlin Wall. Kennedy\'s initial reaction was to ignore this, as long as free access from West to East Berlin continued. This course was altered when it was learned that the West Berliners had lost confidence in the defense of their position by the United States. Kennedy sent V.P. Johnson, along with a host of other military personnel, in convoy through West Germany, including Soviet armed checkpoints, to demonstrate the continued commitment of the U.S. to West Berlin.[52] John F. Kennedy gave a speech at Saint Anselm College on May 5, 1960, regarding America\'s conduct in the emerging Cold War. Kennedy\'s speech detailed how American foreign policy should be conducted towards African nations, noting a hint of support for modern African nationalism by saying that \"For we, too, founded a new nation on revolt from colonial rule\".[53] Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion Prior to Kennedy\'s election to the presidency, the Eisenhower Administration created a plan to overthrow the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba. Central to the plan, led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with help from the US Military,[54] but with no covert help from the United States, was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cuban exiles[55] U.S.-trained Cuban insurgents, led by CIA paramilitary officers were to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.[56] On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed. In what is known as the \"Bay of Pigs Invasion\", 1,500 U.S.-trained Cubans, called \"Brigade 2506,\" returned to the island in the hope of deposing Castro. In keeping with prior plans, no U.S. air support was provided. As CIA director Allen Dulles latter stated, they thought that once the troops were on the ground any action required for success would be authorized by the president to prevent failure.[57] By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.[58] Furthermore, the incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.[59] According to biographer Richard Reeves, Kennedy primarily focused on the political repercussions of the plan rather than the military considerations; when it failed, he was convinced the plan was a set up to make him look bad.[60] Nevertheless, in the end, Kennedy took the blame himself.[61] Afterwards, he opined, \"...We got a big kick in the leg and we deserved it. But maybe we\'ll learn something from it.\"[62] Late in 1961 the White House formed the \"Special Group (Augmented)\", headed by Robert Kennedy and including Edward Lansdale, Sec. McNamara and others. The group\'s objective, to overthrow Castro via espionage, sabotage and other covert tactics, was never pursued.[63] Cuban Missile Crisis Address on the Buildup of Arms in Cuba Kennedy addressing the nation on October 22, 1962 about the buildup of arms on Cuba Problems listening to this file? See media help. Meeting Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis On October 14, 1962, CIA U-2 spy planes took photographs in Cuba of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites under construction by the Soviets in previous months. The deployment of these missiles had come to the attention of the intelligence community when Soviet shipments to Cuba began and a debate had ensued in the National Security Council (NSC) as to whether the intended use of the weapons was offensive or defensive. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, 1962, and a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature and thus posed an immediate nuclear threat.[64] Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would be faced with the increased threat from close range nuclear weapons. The U.S. would as well appear to the world as less committed to the defense of the hemisphere. On a personal level, Kennedy needed to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna summit.[65] More than a third of the members of the NSC favored an unannounced air assault on the missile sites, but for some of them this conjured up an image of \"Pearl Harbor in reverse\".[66] There was as well some reaction from the international community (asked in confidence) that the assault plan was an overreaction in light of U.S. missiles placed in Turkey by Eisenhower. There also could be no assurance from the Council that the assault would be 100% effective.[67] In concurrence with a majority vote of the NSC, Kennedy decided on a naval quarantine, and on October 22 dispatched a message of this to Khrushchev and announced the decision on TV.[68] The U.S. Navy would stop and inspect all Soviet ships arriving off Cuba, beginning October 24. The Organization of American States surprisingly gave unanimous support to the removal of the missiles. The president exchanged two sets of letters with Khrushchev to no avail.[69] UN Secretary General U Thant requested both parties reverse their decisions and allow a cooling off period. Khrushchev said yes but Kennedy replied no.[70] After one Soviet-flagged ship was stopped and boarded, on October 28 Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile sites subject to UN inspections.[71] The U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and privately agreed to remove its Jupiter missiles in Turkey, which were at that time obsolete and had been supplanted by missile-equipped US Navy Polaris subs.[72] This crisis had brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point known before or since. In the end, \"the humanity\" of the two men prevailed.[73] The crisis improved the image of American willpower and the president\'s credibility. His approval rating increased from 66% to 77% immediately thereafter.[74] Latin America and communism Main article: Kennedy and Latin America Arguing that \"those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,\"[75] Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent aid to troubled countries and sought greater human rights standards in the region. He worked closely with Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, as well as developments in the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. When the president took office the Eisenhower administration, through the CIA, has begun putting into place assassination plots in Cuba against Castro and in the Dominican Republic against Rafael Trujillo. Kennedy instructed the CIA privately that any such planning must include plausible deniability by the U.S. His public position was in opposition.[76] In June 1961 the Dominican Republic\'s leader was assassinated; in the days following the event, Undersecretary of State Chester Bowles led a cautious reaction by the nation, and Robert Kennedy, substituting for his brother who was in France, and who saw an opportunity for the U.S., called him \"a gutless bastard\" to his face.[77] Peace Corps Executive Order 10924 Establishment of the Peace Corps John F. Kennedy\'s announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps Problems listening to this file? See media help. As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy asked Congress to create the Peace Corps.[3] His brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver was the first director. Through this program, Americans volunteer to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care, and construction. The authorization grew to 5,000 members by March 1963 and 10,000 the following year.[78] Since 1961, over 200,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps, serving in 139 countries. Southeast Asia Main articles: 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, Reaction to the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Cable 243, Buddhist crisis, Thích Quảng Đức, Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, Krulak Mendenhall mission, and McNamara Taylor mission When briefing Kennedy, Eisenhower emphasized the communist threat in Southeast Asia as requiring priority; Eisenhower considered Laos to be \"the cork in the bottle\" in regards to the regional threat. In March 1961, Kennedy voiced a change in policy from supporting a \"free\" Laos to a \"neutral\" Laos, indicating privately that Vietnam, and not Laos, should be deemed America\'s tripwire for communism\'s spread in the area.[79] In May 1961, he dispatched Lyndon Johnson to meet with South Vietnam\'s President Ngo Dinh Diem. Johnson assured Diem of more aid in molding a fighting force that could resist the Communists.[80] Kennedy announced a change of policy from support to partnership with Diem in defeat of communism in South Vietnam.[81] Kennedy initially followed Eisenhower\'s lead, by using limited military action to fight the Communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh.[82] Kennedy continued policies providing political, economic, and military support for the South Vietnamese government.[82] Late in 1961, the Viet Cong began assuming a predominant presence, initially seizing the provincial capital of Phuoc Vinh.[83] Kennedy increased the number of helicopters, military advisors and undeclared U.S. Special Forces in the area, but he was still reluctant to order a full scale deployment of troops.[84][85] Kennedy formally authorized escalated involvement when he signed the \"National Security Action Memorandum – Subversive Insurgency (War of Liberation)\" in early 1962.[86] Secretary of State, Dean Rusk voiced strong support for U.S. involvement, as illustrated in his emphatic statement in fall 1962 that, \"...neutralism [in South Vietnam] is not neutralism at all; it\'s tantamount to surrender\".[87] \"Operation Ranch Hand\", a broad scale aerial defoliation effort began on the roadsides in South Vietnam.[88][89] Kennedy with (then) future Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in the Oval office in 1963 In April 1963, Kennedy expressed his assessment of the situation in Vietnam: \"We don\'t have a prayer of staying in Vietnam. Those people hate us. They are going to throw our asses out of there at any point. But I can\'t give up that territory to the Communists and get the American people to re-elect me\".[90] By July 1963, Kennedy faced a crisis in Vietnam; despite increased U.S. support, the South Vietnamese military was only marginally effective against pro-Communist Viet Cong forces. On August 21, just as the new U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge arrived, Ngo Dinh Diem, and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu ordered South Vietnam forces, funded and trained by the CIA, to quell Buddhist demonstrations. The crackdowns heightened expectations of a coup d\'état to remove Diem with (or perhaps by) his brother, Nhu.[91] Lodge was instructed to try to get Diem and Nhu to step down and leave the country. Diem would not listen to Lodge.[92] Cable 243 (DEPTEL 243), dated August 24, followed, declaring Washington would no longer tolerate Nhu\'s actions, and Lodge was ordered to pressure Diem to remove his brother, Nhu. If Diem refused, the Americans would explore alternative leadership.[93] Lodge replied, stating the only workable option was to get the South Vietnamese generals to overthrow Diem and Nhu, as originally planned.[94] At week\'s end, Kennedy learned from Lodge that the Diem government might, due to France\'s assistance to Nhu, be dealing secretly with the Communists – and might ask the Americans to leave; orders were sent to Saigon and throughout Washington to \"destroy all coup cables\".[95] At the same time, the first formal anti-Vietnam war sentiment was expressed by U.S. clergy from the Ministers\' Vietnam Committee.[96] A White House meeting in September was indicative of the very different ongoing appraisals; the President was given updated assessments after personal inspections on the ground by the Department of Defense (Gen. Victor Krulak) and the State Department (Joseph Mendenhall). Krulak said the military fight against the communists was progressing and being won, while Mendenhall stated that the country was civilly being lost to any U.S. influence. Kennedy reacted, saying, \"Did you two gentlemen visit the same country?\" The president was unaware the two men were at such odds they did not speak on the return flight.[97] In October 1963, the president appointed Defense Secretary McNamara and Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor to a Vietnam mission in another effort to synchronize the information and formulation of policy. The objective of the McNamara Taylor mission \"emphasized the importance of getting to the bottom of the differences in reporting from U.S. representatives in Vietnam\".[98] In meetings with McNamara, Taylor and Lodge, Diem again refused to agree to governing measures insisted upon by the U.S., helping to dispel McNamara\'s previous optimism about Diem.[99] Taylor and McNamara were also enlightened by Vietnam\'s Vice President, Nguyen Ngoc Tho (choice of many to succeed Diem should a coup occur), who in detailed terms obliterated Taylor\'s information that the military was succeeding in the countryside.[100] The mission report, after it had been through the NSC, nevertheless retained, at Kennedy\'s insistence, a recommended schedule for troop withdrawals: 1000 by year\'s end and complete withdrawal in 1965, something the NSC considered strategic fantasy.[101] The final report also portrayed military progress, an increasingly unpopular Diem-led government, not vulnerable to a coup, albeit possible internal assassination.[clarification needed][102] In late October, intelligence wires again reported a coup of the Diem government was afoot. The source, Duong Van Minh a/k/a \"Big Minh\" wanted to know the U.S. position. Kennedy\'s instructions to Lodge were to offer covert assistance to the coup, excluding assassination, but to ensure deniability by the U.S.[103] Later that month, as the coup became imminent, Kennedy ordered all cables routed through him, and a policy of \"control and cut out\" was initiated – to insure presidential control of U.S. responses, while cutting him out of the paper trail.[104] On November 1, 1963, South Vietnamese generals, led by \"Big Minh\", overthrew the Diem government, arresting and then killing Diem and his brother Nhu. Kennedy was shocked by the deaths and by finding out afterwards that Minh had asked the CIA field office to secure safe passage out of the country for Diem and Nhu, but was told 24 hours was needed to get a plane. Minh responded that he could not hold them that long and thus handed them a death sentence.[105] Initially after news of the coup, there was renewed confidence in America and South Vietnam, that now the war might be won.[106] McGeorge Bundy drafted a National Security Action Memo to present to Kennedy upon his return from Dallas. It reiterated U.S. resolve to fight communism in Vietnam, with both military and economic aid at a higher level, including operations in Laos and Cambodia. Before leaving for Dallas, Kennedy told Mike Forrestal that \"after the first of the year ... [he wanted] an in depth study of every possible option, including how to get out of there ... to review this whole thing from the bottom to the top\". When asked what he thought the president meant, Forrestal said, \"it was devil\'s advocate stuff.\"[107] Historians disagree on whether Vietnam would have escalated to the point it did, had Kennedy survived and been re-elected in 1964.[108] Fueling the debate are statements made by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the film, \"The Fog of War\", that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election. The film also contains a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson stating that Kennedy was planning to withdraw, a position Johnson states he strongly disapproved.[109][page needed] Further, Kennedy had signed National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, dated October 11, 1963, which ordered the withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963.[110][111][page needed] Nevertheless, given the reasons stated for the overthrow of the Diem government, such action would have been a policy reversal, but Kennedy was moving in a less hawkish direction since his acclaimed speech about World Peace at American University on June 10, 1963.[112] According to historian Lawrence Freedman, Kennedy\'s statements about withdrawing from Vietnam, were \"less of a definite decision than a working assumption, based on a hope for stability rather than an expectation of chaos\".[113] Some of the details of Kennedy\'s involvement in Vietnam were classified until the release of the Pentagon Papers in 1971.[114] U.S. involvement in the region escalated until Lyndon Johnson, his successor, directly deployed regular U.S. military forces for fighting the Vietnam War.[115][116] After Kennedy\'s assassination, the new President Lyndon B. Johnson immediately reversed his predecessor\'s order to withdraw 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963 with his own NSAM 273 on November 26, 1963.[117] American University speech Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963. Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Strategy of Peace On June 10, 1963, Kennedy delivered the commencement address at American University in Washington, D.C., \"to discuss a topic on which too often ignorance abounds and the truth is too rarely perceived - yet it is the most important topic on earth: world peace...I speak of peace because of the new face of war...in an age when a singular nuclear weapon contains ten times the explosive force delivered by all the allied forces in the Second World War...an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by wind and air and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn...I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men...world peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbor - it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance...our problems are man-made - therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants.\"[118] The president also made two announcements - that the Soviets had expressed a desire to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty and that the U.S had postponed planned atmospheric tests.[119] World Peace Speech Speech from American University by John F. Kennedy, June 10, 1963 (duration 26:47) Problems listening to this file? See media help. West Berlin speech Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech Ich bin ein Berliner speech from the Rathaus Schöneberg by John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963 (duration 9:01) Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech (audio) Audio-only version (duration 9:22) Kennedy delivering his speech in Berlin Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt, March 1961 Wikisource has original text related to this article: JFK\'s Ich bin ein Berliner speech In 1963, Germany was enduring a time of particular vulnerability, due to Soviet aggression to the east, de Gaulle\'s French nationalism to the west, and the impending retirement of German Chancellor Adenauer.[120] On June 26, 1963, Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech reiterating American commitment to Germany and criticizing communism; he was met with an ecstatic response from a massive audience. Kennedy used the construction of the Berlin Wall as an example of the failures of communism: \"Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in.\" The speech is known for its famous phrase \"Ich bin ein Berliner\" (\"I am a citizen of Berlin\"). Nearly five-sixths of the population was on the street for the speech.[121] He remarked to Ted Sorensen afterwards: \"We\'ll never have another day like this one, as long as we live.\"[122] Israel Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir with President Kennedy (1962) Kennedy encountered problems with the Israeli government regarding the production of nuclear weapons in Dimona. After the existence of a nuclear plant was initially denied by the Israeli government, David Ben-Gurion, in a speech to the Israeli Knesset on December 21, 1960, stated that the purpose of the nuclear plant at Beersheba was for \"research in problems of arid zones and desert flora and fauna\".[123] When Ben-Gurion met with Kennedy in New York, he claimed that Dimona was being developed to provide nuclear power for desalinization and \"for the time being the only purposes [of the nuclear plant] are for peace\".[123] Kennedy did not believe this, and in May 1963 sent a letter to Ben-Gurion stating, \"this commitment and this support would seriously be jeopardized in the public opinion in this country and the West as a whole if it should be thought that this Government was unable to obtain reliable information on a subject as vital to peace as Israel\'s efforts in the nuclear field.\"[123] Ben-Gurion repeated previous reassurances that Dimona was being developed for peaceful purposes, and Israel firmly resisted American pressure to open its nuclear facilities to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections. According to Seymour Hersh, the Israelis set up false control rooms to show American inspectors. Abe Feinberg stated, \"It was part of my job to tip them off that Kennedy was insisting on [an inspection].\"[124] The State Department argued that if Israel wanted arms, it should in return accept international supervision of its nuclear program.[124] Kennedy had tried to control the arms being sold and given to Israel because the Israelis would not sign the IAEA compacts for the Dimona nuclear site, would not fully admit its purpose and continued to insist it was for peaceful energy purposes. In early March 1965, the director of the State Department\'s Office of Near Eastern Affairs, Rodger P. Davies, had come to the conclusion that Israel was developing nuclear weapons. He reported that the target date for acquisition of a nuclear capability by Israel was 1968-69. A science attache at the embassy in Tel Aviv concluded that parts of the Dimona facility had been \"purposely mothballed\" to mislead American scientists during their visit.[125] Dimona was never placed under IAEA safeguards. On May 1, 1968, Undersecretary of State Katzenbach told President Johnson that Dimona was producing enough plutonium to produce two bombs a year. Attempts to write Israeli adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) into contracts for the supply of U.S. weapons continued throughout 1968.[126] Iraq In 1963, the Kennedy administration backed a coup against the government of Iraq headed by General Abdel Karim Kassem, who five years earlier had deposed the Western-allied Iraqi monarchy. The CIA helped the new Ba\'ath Party government led by Abdul Salam Arif in ridding the country of suspected leftists and Communists. In a Ba\'athist coup, the government used lists of suspected Communists and other leftists provided by the CIA, to systematically murder untold numbers of Iraq\'s educated elite—killings in which Saddam Hussein himself is said to have participated. The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers, other professionals, military and political figures.[127][128][129] According to an op-ed in The New York Times, the U.S. sent arms to the new regime, weapons later used against the same Kurdish insurgents the U.S. supported against Kassem and then abandoned him. American and UK oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel, and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.[127] Ireland Further information: The Ireland Funds President Kennedy in motorcade in the Republic of Ireland on June 27, 1963 On the occasion of his visit to the Republic of Ireland in 1963, President Kennedy joined with Irish President Éamon de Valera to form The American Irish Foundation. The mission of this organization was to foster connections between Americans of Irish descent and the country of their ancestry. Kennedy furthered these connections of cultural solidarity by accepting a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland. Kennedy had near-legendary status in Ireland, due to his ancestral ties to the country. Irish citizens who were alive in 1963 often have very strong memories of Kennedy\'s momentous visit.[130] He also visited the original cottage at Dunganstown, near New Ross, where previous Kennedys had lived before emigrating to America, and said: \"This is where it all began ...\" On December 22, 2006, the Irish Department of Justice released declassified police documents that indicated that Kennedy was the subject of three death threats during this visit. Though these threats were determined to be hoaxes, security was heightened.[131] Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed on the desirability of negotiating a nuclear test ban treaty, originally conceived in Adlai Stevenson\'s 1956 presidential campaign.[132] In their Vienna summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but Khrushchev began testing nuclear weapons that September and Kennedy responded by conducting tests 5 days later.[133] Shortly thereafter, new U.S satellites began delivering images which made it clear that the Soviets were substantially behind the U.S. in the \"missile gap\".[134] Nevertheless, the greater nuclear strength of the U.S. was of little value as long as the U.S.S.R. perceived themselves to be at parity.[135] In July 1963 the stage was set for negotiations, and Kennedy sent Averell Harriman to Moscow to negotiate a treaty with the Soviets.[136] The introductory sessions began with Khrushchev, who then delegated Soviet representation to Andrei Gromyko. It quickly became clear that the stated objective of a comprehensive test ban would not reach fruition, due largely to the reluctance of the Soviets for inspections to verify compliance.[137] Ultimately, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to a limited treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but not underground; the U.S. Senate ratified this and Kennedy signed it into law in October 1963. France was quick to declare that it was free to further develop and test its nuclear defenses.[138] Domestic policy Kennedy called his domestic program the \"New Frontier\". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession. Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination. In his 1963 State of the Union, he proposed substantial tax reform and reduction, in income tax rates, from the current range of 20-90% to a range of 14-65%; he proposed a reduction in the corporate tax rates from 52 to 47%. Congress did not act until 1964, after his death. To the Economics Club of N.Y., he spoke in 1963 of \"...the paradoxical truth that tax rates are too high and revenues too low; and the soundest way to raise revenue in the long term is to lower rates now.\"[139] Few of Kennedy\'s major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65.[140] Economy Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and encourage growth of the economy.[141] Kennedy presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark, in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 led to the country\'s first non-war, non-recession deficit.[142] The economy, which had been through two recessions in three years and was in one when Kennedy took office, accelerated notably during his brief presidency. Despite low inflation and interest rates, GDP had grown by an average of only 2.2% during the Eisenhower presidency (scarcely more than population growth at the time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower\'s last twelve months in office.[143] Stagnation had taken a toll on the nation\'s labor market, as well: unemployment had risen steadily from under 3% in 1953 to 7%, by early 1961.[144] The economy turned around and prospered during the Kennedy administration. GDP expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963,[143] while inflation remained steady at around 1% and unemployment eased;[144][145] industrial production rose by 15% and motor vehicle sales leapt by 40%.[146] This rate of growth in GDP and industry continued until around 1966, and has yet to be repeated for such a sustained period of time.[143] There were nevertheless some painful moments, as in the stock market, which had steadily declined since Kennedy\'s election, and which dropped a full 10% shortly after the administration\'s action on the steel industry in 1962.[147] The major steel companies announced in April 1962 a 3.5% price increase (the first in 3 years) within a day of each other. This came just days after the companies had reached a settlement with the steelworkers\' union, providing in chief a wage increase of 2.5%. The administration was furious, with Kennedy saying, \"Why did they do this? Do they think they can get away with this? God, I hate the bastards.\" The president took personal charge of a campaign against the industry, assigning to each cabinet member a statement regarding the effects of the price increase on their area. Robert Kennedy, echoing his brother\'s own sentiments, \"We\'re going for broke...their expense accounts, where they\'ve been and what they\'ve been doing...the FBI is to interview them all...we can\'t lose this.\"[148] Robert took the position that the steel executives had illegally colluded in doing this. There was genuine concern about the inflationary effects of the price increase. The administration\'s actions influenced US Steel to rescind the price increase.[149] The Wall Street Journal wrote that the administration had acted \"by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police.\"[150] Yale law professor Charles Reich wrote in The New Republic his opinion that the administration had violated civil liberties by calling a grand jury to indict US Steel for collusion so quickly.[150] A New York Times editorial praised Kennedy\'s actions and said that the steel industry\'s price increase \"imperils the economic welfare of the country by inviting a tidal wave of inflation.\"[151] Nevertheless, the administration\'s Bureau of Budget reported the price increase would have resulted in a net gain for GDP as well as a net budget surplus.[152] Kennedy had little knowledge of the agricultural sector of the economy, and farmers were definitely not on his list of priorities, at least in his 1960 campaign. After giving a speech to a farming community, he rhetorically asked an aide, \"Did you understand any of what I just said in there? I sure didn\'t.\"[153] Federal and military death penalty As President, Kennedy oversaw the last pre-Furman federal execution,[154] and, as of 2008, the last military execution. Governor of Iowa Harold Hughes, a death penalty opponent, personally contacted Kennedy to request clemency for Victor Feguer,[155] who was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa, but Kennedy turned down the request[156] and Feguer was executed on March 15, 1963. Kennedy commuted a death sentence imposed by military court on seaman Jimmie Henderson on February 12, 1962, changing the penalty to life in prison.[157] On March 22, 1962, Kennedy signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), abolishing the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction in the United States with a mandatory death sentence for first degree murder, replacing it with life imprisonment with parole if the jury could not decide between life imprisonment and the death penalty, or if the jury chose life imprisonment by a unanimous vote.[158][159] The death penalty in the District of Columbia has not been applied since 1957, and has now been abolished.[160] Civil rights The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. The Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court\'s decision. Segregation had also been prohibited by the Court at other public facilities (e.g. buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches) but continued nonetheless. Kennedy verbally supported racial integration and civil rights; during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., who had been jailed while demonstrating for equal access of African Americans; Kennedy secured the early release of King, which drew additional black support to his candidacy.[161] Nevertheless President Kennedy believed the grass roots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, which was dominated by conservative Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it.[162] He also was more concerned with other issues early in his presidency, e.g. the \"Bay of Pigs\" fiasco and Southeast Asia. As articulated by brother Robert, the administration\'s early priority was to \"keep the president out of this civil rights mess\". As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the south, and who were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including law enforcement both federal and state. Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders as an alternative to using federal troops or uncooperative FBI agents. Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to \"get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts.\"[163] In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering. Attorney General Robert Kennedy responded by sending some 400 U.S. Marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly federalized and sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[164] Campus Riots left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or \"related facilities\".[165] In early 1963, Kennedy related to Martin Luther King, Jr., about the prospects for civil rights legislation: \"If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill.\"[166] However, civil rights clashes were very much on the rise that year.[167] Brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front.[168] On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the President, and which had hours earlier been under Wallace\'s command. That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation - to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.[169][170] His proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The day ended with the murder of a N.A.A.C.P. leader, Medgar Evers, at his home in Mississippi.[171] As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.[172] Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women on December 14, 1961.[173] Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt led the commission. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963.[174] Earlier, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex.[175] Over a hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans, gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. Kennedy feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. He turned over some of the details of the government\'s involvement to the Dept. of Justice, which channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to the six sponsors of the March, including the N.A.A.C.P. and Martin Luther King\'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). To ensure a peaceful demonstration, the organizers and the president personally edited speeches which were inflammatory and agreed the March would be held on a Wednesday and would be over at 4:00 pm Thousands of troops were placed on standby. Kennedy watched King\'s speech on TV and was very impressed. The March was considered a \"triumph of managed protest\", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken. Kennedy felt the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.[176] Nevertheless, the struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on a Sunday at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; at the end of the day six children had died in the explosion and aftermath.[177] As a result of this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some dr
kennedy, (ned@dy.us), 25.09.2011 - 04:36
John F. Kennedy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia \"JFK\", \"John Kennedy\", and \"Jack Kennedy\" redirect here. For other uses, see JFK (disambiguation), John Kennedy (disambiguation), and Jack Kennedy (disambiguation). John F. Kennedy 35th President of the United States In office January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Vice President Lyndon Johnson Preceded by Dwight Eisenhower Succeeded by Lyndon Johnson United States Senator from Massachusetts In office January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960 Preceded by Henry Lodge Succeeded by Benjamin Smith Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts\'s 11th district In office January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953 Preceded by James Curler Succeeded by Tip O\'Neill Personal details Born May 29, 1917 Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S. Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46) Dallas, Texas, U.S. Political party Democratic Party Spouse(s) Jacqueline Bouvier Children Arabella Caroline John Patrick Alma mater Harvard College Profession Author Religion Roman Catholicism Signature Military service Allegiance United States Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 1941–1945 Rank Lieutenant Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 Battles/wars World War II • Solomon Islands campaign Awards Navy and Marine Corps Medal Purple Heart American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (3 bronze stars) World War II Victory Medal[1] John Fitzgerald \"Jack\" Kennedy pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 and Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts\'s 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43,[2][3] the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first president to have been born in the 20th century.[4] Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.[5] Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the possibility of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.[6] Contents [hide] 1 Early life and education 2 Military service 3 Congressional career 3.1 House of Representatives 3.2 Senate 4 1960 presidential election 5 Presidency 5.1 Foreign policy 5.1.1 Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion 5.1.2 Cuban Missile Crisis 5.1.3 Latin America and communism 5.1.4 Peace Corps 5.1.5 Southeast Asia 5.1.6 American University speech 5.1.7 West Berlin speech 5.1.8 Israel 5.1.9 Iraq 5.1.10 Ireland 5.1.11 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 5.2 Domestic policy 5.2.1 Economy 5.2.2 Federal and military death penalty 5.2.3 Civil rights 5.2.4 Civil liberties 5.2.5 Immigration 5.2.6 Space program 5.2.7 Native American relations 6 Assassination 6.1 Funeral 7 Administration, Cabinet and judicial appointments 1961–1963 7.1 Judicial appointments 7.1.1 Supreme Court 7.1.2 Other courts 8 Image, social life and family 9 Ancestors 10 Legacy 10.1 Eponyms 10.2 Memorials 11 Coat of arms 12 Media 13 In other media and popular culture 14 See also 15 Footnotes 16 References 17 External links Early life and education John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts on Tuesday, May 29, 1917, at 3:00 pm,[7] the second son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Fitzgerald; Rose, in turn, was the eldest child of John \"Honey Fitz\" Fitzgerald, a prominent Boston political figure who was the city\'s mayor and a three-term member of Congress. Kennedy lived in Brookline for ten years and attended Edward Devotion School, Noble and Greenough Lower School, and the Dexter School, through 4th grade. In 1927, the family moved to 5040 Independence Avenue in Riverdale, Bronx, New York City; two years later, they moved to 294 Pondfield Road in Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Scout Troop 2 (and was the first Boy Scout to become President).[8] Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannisport, Massachusetts, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida. For the 5th through 7th grade, Kennedy attended Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys. For 8th grade in September 1930, the 13-year old Kennedy attended Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy was sent to The Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, for his 9th through 12th grade years. His older brother Joe Jr., was already at Choate, two years ahead of him, a football star and leading student in the school. Jack spent his first years at Choate in his brother\'s shadow, and compensated for this with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie. Their most notorious stunt was to explode a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the ensuing chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain \"muckers\" who would \"spit in our sea\". The defiant Jack Kennedy took the cue and named his group \"The Muckers Club\", which included roommate and friend Kirk LeMoyne \"Lem\" Billings. While at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems, culminating in 1934 with his emergency hospitalization at Yale - New Haven Hospital. In June 1934, he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota and diagnosed with colitis. Kennedy graduated from Choate in June 1935. For the school yearbook, of which he had been business manager, Kennedy was voted the \"Most likely to Succeed\".[9] In September 1935, he made his first trip abroad, with his parents and sister Kathleen, to London, with the intent of studying at the London School of Economics (LSE) as his older brother Joe had done. There is uncertainty about what he did at LSE before returning to America in October 1935, when he enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University. He was then hospitalized for two months of observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He convalesced further at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach, then spent the spring of 1936 working as a ranch hand on a 40,000-acre (160 km2) cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona. That summer he raced sailboats at the Kennedy home in Hyannisport. In September 1936, Kennedy enrolled at Harvard College, where he produced that year\'s annual \"Freshman Smoker\", called by a reviewer \"an elaborate entertainment, which included in its cast outstanding personalities of the radio, screen and sports world\".[10] He tried out for the football, golf, and swim teams and earned a spot on the varsity swim team.[11] In July 1937, Kennedy sailed to France, with his convertible on board, and spent ten weeks driving through Europe with Billings. In June 1938, Kennedy sailed overseas with his father and brother Joe to work with his father, Roosevelt\'s U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James\'s, at the American embassy in London. In August the family went to a villa near Cannes. In 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East in preparation for his Harvard senior honors thesis. He then went to Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, 1939, the family was in the House of Commons for speeches endorsing the United Kingdom\'s declaration of war on Germany. Kennedy was sent as his father\'s representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the U.S. from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight. As an upperclassman at Harvard, Kennedy became a more serious student and developed an interest in political philosophy. In his junior year he made the Dean’s List.[12] In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, \"Appeasement in Munich\", about British participation in the Munich Agreement. He initially intended his thesis to be private, but his father encouraged him to publish it. He graduated from Harvard College with a S.B. cum laude in international affairs in 1940.[12] His thesis, published that year as a book entitled Why England Slept, became a bestseller.[13] Kennedy enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.[when?] In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as an American ambassador and then traveled throughout South America. Military service Main article: Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 In September 1941, after medical disqualification by the Army for his chronic lower back problems, Kennedy joined the U.S. Navy, with the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), former naval attaché to Joseph Kennedy.[14] Kennedy was an ensign serving in the office of the Secretary of the Navy when the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred. He then attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center, was assigned duty in Panama and later in the Pacific theater where he earned the rank of lieutenant, commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat.[15] LTJG Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109 On August 2, 1943, Kennedy\'s boat, PT-109, along with PT-162 and PT-169, were ordered to continue nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands,[16] when it was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri.[17] Kennedy gathered his surviving crew members together in the water around the wreckage, to vote on whether to \"fight or surrender\". Kennedy stated, \"There\'s nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose.\" Shunning surrender, the men swam towards a small island.[18] Kennedy, despite re-injury to his back in the collision, towed a badly burned crewman through the water with a life jacket strap clenched between his teeth.[19] He towed the wounded man to the island and later to a second island from where his crew was subsequently rescued.[20] For these actions, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal with the following citation: For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1–2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore. His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. In October 1943, Kennedy took command of a PT boat converted into a gun boat, PT-59, which in November took part in a Marine rescue on Choiseul Island.[21] Kennedy was honorably discharged in early 1945, just prior to Japan\'s surrender. Kennedy\'s other decorations in World War II included the Purple Heart, American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze service stars, and the World War II Victory Medal.[1] When later asked by a reporter how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: \"It was involuntary. They sank my boat.\"[22] Congressional career House of Representatives While Kennedy was still serving, his older brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. was killed in action on August 12, 1944 while part of Operation Aphrodite. Since Joe Jr. had been the family\'s political standard-bearer,[23] the task now fell on John. In 1946, U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in the strong Democratic 10th Congressional district in Massachusetts to become mayor of Boston. Kennedy ran for the seat, beating his Republican opponent by a large margin; this, despite not having previously included politics in his career planning. He was a congressman for six years but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President Harry S. Truman and the rest of the Democratic Party. Senate In 1952, he defeated incumbent Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. for the U.S. Senate. The following year he was married to wife Jacqueline.[24] Kennedy underwent several spinal operations over the following two years, was at times critically ill and received Catholic last rites, and was often absent from the Senate. During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage, a book about U.S. Senators who risked their careers for their personal beliefs, and which received the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957.[25] Rumors that this work was co-authored by his close adviser and speechwriter, Ted Sorensen, were confirmed in Sorensen\'s 2008 autobiography.[26] At the 1956 Democratic National Convention, Kennedy was nominated for Vice President, for the presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson, but finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. Kennedy received national exposure from that episode; his father thought it just as well that his son lost, due to the political debility of his Catholicism, and the strength of the Eisenhower ticket. One of the matters demanding Kennedy\'s attention in the Senate was President Eisenhower\'s bill for the Civil Rights Act of 1957[27] Kennedy cast a procedural vote on this which was considered by some as an appeasement of Southern Democratic opponents of the bill.[27] Kennedy did vote for Title III of the act, which would have given the Attorney General powers to enjoin, but Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson agreed to let the provision die as a compromise measure.[28] Kennedy also voted for Title IV, termed the \"Jury Trial Amendment\". Many civil rights advocates at the time criticized that vote as one which would weaken the act.[29] A final compromise bill, which Kennedy supported, was passed in September 1957.[30][31] In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin. Senator Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family; Joseph Kennedy, Sr. was a leading McCarthy supporter, Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy\'s subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy. In 1954, when the Senate voted to censure McCarthy, Kennedy had drafted, but not delivered, a speech supporting the censure, but was in the hospital. Though absent, he could have participated procedurally by \"pairing\" his vote against that of another senator, but did not do so. He never indicated how he would have voted, but the episode damaged Kennedy\'s support in the liberal community, including Eleanor Roosevelt, in the 1956 and 1960 elections.[32] 1960 presidential election Main article: United States presidential election, 1960 On January 2, 1960, Kennedy initiated his campaign for President in the Democratic primary election, where he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon. Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia, Morse in Maryland and Oregon, as well as token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana, and Nebraska. Kennedy made a point of visiting a coal mine in West Virginia; most miners and others in that predominantly conservative, Protestant state were quite wary of Kennedy\'s Roman Catholicism. His victory in West Virginia confirmed his broad popular appeal. At the Democratic Convention, he gave his well-known \"New Frontier\" speech, saying: \"For the problems are not all solved and the battles are not all won—and we stand today on the edge of a New Frontier ... But the New Frontier of which I speak is not a set of promises—it is a set of challenges. It sums up not what I intend to offer the American people, but what I intend to ask of them.\"[33] John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin, March 1960 With Humphrey and Morse eliminated, Kennedy\'s main opponent at the Los Angeles convention was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Kennedy overcame this formal challenge as well as informal ones from Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, Stuart Symington, as well as several favorite sons, and on July 13 the Democratic convention nominated Kennedy as its candidate. Kennedy asked Johnson to be his Vice Presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy\'s own staff, including brother Robert. He needed Johnson\'s strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916. Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy\'s Roman Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his being Catholic would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960, \"I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters – and the Church does not speak for me.\"[34] Kennedy questioned rhetorically whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic, and once stated that, \"No one asked me my religion [serving the Navy] in the South Pacific.\"[35] In September and October, Kennedy appeared with Republican candidate Richard Nixon, then Vice President, in the first televised U.S. presidential debates in U.S. history. During these programs, Nixon, with a sore injured leg and his \"five o\'clock shadow\", looked tense, uncomfortable, and perspiring, while Kennedy, choosing to avail himself of makeup services, appeared relaxed, leading the huge television audience to favor Kennedy as the winner. Radio listeners either thought Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.[36] The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history—the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in politics.[25] After the first debate Kennedy\'s campaign gained momentum and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls. On Tuesday, November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century. In the national popular vote Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College he won 303 votes to Nixon\'s 219 (269 were needed to win). Another 14 electors from Mississippi and Alabama refused to support Kennedy because of his support for the civil rights movement; they voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia. He was the youngest man elected president, succeeding Eisenhower who was then the oldest (Ronald Reagan surpassed Eisenhower as the oldest president in 1981).[37] Presidency Wikisource has original text related to this article: John F. Kennedy\'s Inaugural Address See also: Timeline of the presidency of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President at noon on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying, \"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.\" He also asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the \"common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.\" He added: \"All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.\" In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: \"Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.\"[38] In its scope, the address also reflected Kennedy’s confidence that his administration would chart a historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through the early years of his administration.[39] Kennedy brought to the White House a stark contrast in organization compared to the decision making structure of the former general, Eisenhower; and he wasted no time in dismantling it.[40] Kennedy preferred the organizational structure of a wheel, with all the spokes leading to the president. He was ready and willing to make the increased number of quick decisions required in such an environment, and did a monumental job of selecting his cabinet and other appointments, some experienced and some not. In those cases of inexperience, he stated, \"we can learn our jobs together\".[41] There were a couple instances where the president got ahead of himself, as when he announced in a cabinet meeting, without prior notice, that Edward Lansdale would be Ambassador to South Vietnam, a decision which Secretary of State Rusk later had Kennedy alter.[42] There was also the rapid appointment of Harris Wofford who was summoned and arrived at the White House for swearing in, without knowing the position he was to assume.[43] Kennedy further demonstrated his decision making agility with Congress and his staff. Much to the chagrin of his economic advisors who wanted him to reduce taxes, he quickly agreed to a balanced budget pledge when this was needed in exchange for votes to expand the membership of the House Rules Committee in order to give the Democrats a majority in setting the legislative agenda.[44] The president insisted on a focus upon immediate and specific issues facing the administration, and quickly voiced his impatience with ponderings of deeper meanings. Deputy national security advisor, Walt Whitman Rostow, once began a diatribe about the growth of communism and Kennedy abruptly cut him off, asking, \"What do you want me to do about that today?\"[45] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy administration Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy during his presidency President Kennedy\'s foreign policy was dominated by American-Soviet confrontations, manifested by proxy contests in the early stage of the Cold War. In 1961 Kennedy anxiously anticipated a summit with Nikita Khrushchev. Unfortunately, he [Kennedy] started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on Cold War confrontation in early 1961. The speech was intended for domestic audiences in the Soviet Union, but Kennedy interpreted it as a personal challenge. His mistake helped raise tensions going into the Vienna Summit.[46] On the way to the summit was a stop in Paris in June to meet Charles de Gaulle, whose advice to Kennedy was to expect and ignore the abrasive style of Khrushchev. The French president was nationalistic, and disdainful of the United States\' presumed influence in Europe, in his talks with Kennedy. Nevertheless de Gaulle was quite impressed with the young president and family. Kennedy picked up on this in his speech in Paris, saying he would be remembered as \"the man who accompanied Jackie Kennedy to Paris.\"[47] On June 4, 1961 the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna and left the meetings angry and disappointed that he had allowed the Premier to bully him, despite warnings received. Khrushchev for his part was impressed with the president\'s intelligence but thought him weak. Kennedy did succeed in conveying the bottom line to Khrushchev on the most sensitive issue before them, a proposed treaty between Moscow and East Berlin. He made it clear that any such treaty which interfered with U.S access rights in West Berlin would be regarded as an act of war.[48] Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Kennedy and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the White House Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962 Shortly after the president returned home, the U.S.S.R. announced an intent to sign a treaty with East Berlin, abrogating any third party occupation rights in either sector of the city. A depressed and angry president then assumed his obligation was to prepare the country for nuclear war as the only option, and which he then personally thought had a one in five chance of occurring.[49] In the weeks immediately after the Vienna summit, more than 20 thousand people fled from East Berlin to the western sector in reaction to statements from the U.S.S.R. Kennedy began intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson took the lead in recommending a military buildup with NATO allies as the appropriate response.[50] In a July 1961 speech, Kennedy announced his decision to add $3.25 billion to the defense budget, along with over 200 thousand additional troops for the military, saying an attack on West Berlin would be taken as an attack on the U.S. The speech received an 85% approval rating.[51] The following month, the U.S.S.R. and East Berlin officials began blocking any further passage of East Berliners into West Berlin, erecting barbed wire fences across the city, which were quickly upgraded to the Berlin Wall. Kennedy\'s initial reaction was to ignore this, as long as free access from West to East Berlin continued. This course was altered when it was learned that the West Berliners had lost confidence in the defense of their position by the United States. Kennedy sent V.P. Johnson, along with a host of other military personnel, in convoy through West Germany, including Soviet armed checkpoints, to demonstrate the continued commitment of the U.S. to West Berlin.[52] John F. Kennedy gave a speech at Saint Anselm College on May 5, 1960, regarding America\'s conduct in the emerging Cold War. Kennedy\'s speech detailed how American foreign policy should be conducted towards African nations, noting a hint of support for modern African nationalism by saying that \"For we, too, founded a new nation on revolt from colonial rule\".[53] Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion Prior to Kennedy\'s election to the presidency, the Eisenhower Administration created a plan to overthrow the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba. Central to the plan, led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with help from the US Military,[54] but with no covert help from the United States, was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cuban exiles[55] U.S.-trained Cuban insurgents, led by CIA paramilitary officers were to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.[56] On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed. In what is known as the \"Bay of Pigs Invasion\", 1,500 U.S.-trained Cubans, called \"Brigade 2506,\" returned to the island in the hope of deposing Castro. In keeping with prior plans, no U.S. air support was provided. As CIA director Allen Dulles latter stated, they thought that once the troops were on the ground any action required for success would be authorized by the president to prevent failure.[57] By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.[58] Furthermore, the incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.[59] According to biographer Richard Reeves, Kennedy primarily focused on the political repercussions of the plan rather than the military considerations; when it failed, he was convinced the plan was a set up to make him look bad.[60] Nevertheless, in the end, Kennedy took the blame himself.[61] Afterwards, he opined, \"...We got a big kick in the leg and we deserved it. But maybe we\'ll learn something from it.\"[62] Late in 1961 the White House formed the \"Special Group (Augmented)\", headed by Robert Kennedy and including Edward Lansdale, Sec. McNamara and others. The group\'s objective, to overthrow Castro via espionage, sabotage and other covert tactics, was never pursued.[63] Cuban Missile Crisis Address on the Buildup of Arms in Cuba Kennedy addressing the nation on October 22, 1962 about the buildup of arms on Cuba Problems listening to this file? See media help. Meeting Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis On October 14, 1962, CIA U-2 spy planes took photographs in Cuba of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites under construction by the Soviets in previous months. The deployment of these missiles had come to the attention of the intelligence community when Soviet shipments to Cuba began and a debate had ensued in the National Security Council (NSC) as to whether the intended use of the weapons was offensive or defensive. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, 1962, and a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature and thus posed an immediate nuclear threat.[64] Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would be faced with the increased threat from close range nuclear weapons. The U.S. would as well appear to the world as less committed to the defense of the hemisphere. On a personal level, Kennedy needed to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna summit.[65] More than a third of the members of the NSC favored an unannounced air assault on the missile sites, but for some of them this conjured up an image of \"Pearl Harbor in reverse\".[66] There was as well some reaction from the international community (asked in confidence) that the assault plan was an overreaction in light of U.S. missiles placed in Turkey by Eisenhower. There also could be no assurance from the Council that the assault would be 100% effective.[67] In concurrence with a majority vote of the NSC, Kennedy decided on a naval quarantine, and on October 22 dispatched a message of this to Khrushchev and announced the decision on TV.[68] The U.S. Navy would stop and inspect all Soviet ships arriving off Cuba, beginning October 24. The Organization of American States surprisingly gave unanimous support to the removal of the missiles. The president exchanged two sets of letters with Khrushchev to no avail.[69] UN Secretary General U Thant requested both parties reverse their decisions and allow a cooling off period. Khrushchev said yes but Kennedy replied no.[70] After one Soviet-flagged ship was stopped and boarded, on October 28 Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile sites subject to UN inspections.[71] The U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and privately agreed to remove its Jupiter missiles in Turkey, which were at that time obsolete and had been supplanted by missile-equipped US Navy Polaris subs.[72] This crisis had brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point known before or since. In the end, \"the humanity\" of the two men prevailed.[73] The crisis improved the image of American willpower and the president\'s credibility. His approval rating increased from 66% to 77% immediately thereafter.[74] Latin America and communism Main article: Kennedy and Latin America Arguing that \"those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,\"[75] Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent aid to troubled countries and sought greater human rights standards in the region. He worked closely with Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, as well as developments in the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. When the president took office the Eisenhower administration, through the CIA, has begun putting into place assassination plots in Cuba against Castro and in the Dominican Republic against Rafael Trujillo. Kennedy instructed the CIA privately that any such planning must include plausible deniability by the U.S. His public position was in opposition.[76] In June 1961 the Dominican Republic\'s leader was assassinated; in the days following the event, Undersecretary of State Chester Bowles led a cautious reaction by the nation, and Robert Kennedy, substituting for his brother who was in France, and who saw an opportunity for the U.S., called him \"a gutless bastard\" to his face.[77] Peace Corps Executive Order 10924 Establishment of the Peace Corps John F. Kennedy\'s announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps Problems listening to this file? See media help. As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy asked Congress to create the Peace Corps.[3] His brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver was the first director. Through this program, Americans volunteer to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care, and construction. The authorization grew to 5,000 members by March 1963 and 10,000 the following year.[78] Since 1961, over 200,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps, serving in 139 countries. Southeast Asia Main articles: 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, Reaction to the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Cable 243, Buddhist crisis, Thích Quảng Đức, Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, Krulak Mendenhall mission, and McNamara Taylor mission When briefing Kennedy, Eisenhower emphasized the communist threat in Southeast Asia as requiring priority; Eisenhower considered Laos to be \"the cork in the bottle\" in regards to the regional threat. In March 1961, Kennedy voiced a change in policy from supporting a \"free\" Laos to a \"neutral\" Laos, indicating privately that Vietnam, and not Laos, should be deemed America\'s tripwire for communism\'s spread in the area.[79] In May 1961, he dispatched Lyndon Johnson to meet with South Vietnam\'s President Ngo Dinh Diem. Johnson assured Diem of more aid in molding a fighting force that could resist the Communists.[80] Kennedy announced a change of policy from support to partnership with Diem in defeat of communism in South Vietnam.[81] Kennedy initially followed Eisenhower\'s lead, by using limited military action to fight the Communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh.[82] Kennedy continued policies providing political, economic, and military support for the South Vietnamese government.[82] Late in 1961, the Viet Cong began assuming a predominant presence, initially seizing the provincial capital of Phuoc Vinh.[83] Kennedy increased the number of helicopters, military advisors and undeclared U.S. Special Forces in the area, but he was still reluctant to order a full scale deployment of troops.[84][85] Kennedy formally authorized escalated involvement when he signed the \"National Security Action Memorandum – Subversive Insurgency (War of Liberation)\" in early 1962.[86] Secretary of State, Dean Rusk voiced strong support for U.S. involvement, as illustrated in his emphatic statement in fall 1962 that, \"...neutralism [in South Vietnam] is not neutralism at all; it\'s tantamount to surrender\".[87] \"Operation Ranch Hand\", a broad scale aerial defoliation effort began on the roadsides in South Vietnam.[88][89] Kennedy with (then) future Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in the Oval office in 1963 In April 1963, Kennedy expressed his assessment of the situation in Vietnam: \"We don\'t have a prayer of staying in Vietnam. Those people hate us. They are going to throw our asses out of there at any point. But I can\'t give up that territory to the Communists and get the American people to re-elect me\".[90] By July 1963, Kennedy faced a crisis in Vietnam; despite increased U.S. support, the South Vietnamese military was only marginally effective against pro-Communist Viet Cong forces. On August 21, just as the new U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge arrived, Ngo Dinh Diem, and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu ordered South Vietnam forces, funded and trained by the CIA, to quell Buddhist demonstrations. The crackdowns heightened expectations of a coup d\'état to remove Diem with (or perhaps by) his brother, Nhu.[91] Lodge was instructed to try to get Diem and Nhu to step down and leave the country. Diem would not listen to Lodge.[92] Cable 243 (DEPTEL 243), dated August 24, followed, declaring Washington would no longer tolerate Nhu\'s actions, and Lodge was ordered to pressure Diem to remove his brother, Nhu. If Diem refused, the Americans would explore alternative leadership.[93] Lodge replied, stating the only workable option was to get the South Vietnamese generals to overthrow Diem and Nhu, as originally planned.[94] At week\'s end, Kennedy learned from Lodge that the Diem government might, due to France\'s assistance to Nhu, be dealing secretly with the Communists – and might ask the Americans to leave; orders were sent to Saigon and throughout Washington to \"destroy all coup cables\".[95] At the same time, the first formal anti-Vietnam war sentiment was expressed by U.S. clergy from the Ministers\' Vietnam Committee.[96] A White House meeting in September was indicative of the very different ongoing appraisals; the President was given updated assessments after personal inspections on the ground by the Department of Defense (Gen. Victor Krulak) and the State Department (Joseph Mendenhall). Krulak said the military fight against the communists was progressing and being won, while Mendenhall stated that the country was civilly being lost to any U.S. influence. Kennedy reacted, saying, \"Did you two gentlemen visit the same country?\" The president was unaware the two men were at such odds they did not speak on the return flight.[97] In October 1963, the president appointed Defense Secretary McNamara and Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor to a Vietnam mission in another effort to synchronize the information and formulation of policy. The objective of the McNamara Taylor mission \"emphasized the importance of getting to the bottom of the differences in reporting from U.S. representatives in Vietnam\".[98] In meetings with McNamara, Taylor and Lodge, Diem again refused to agree to governing measures insisted upon by the U.S., helping to dispel McNamara\'s previous optimism about Diem.[99] Taylor and McNamara were also enlightened by Vietnam\'s Vice President, Nguyen Ngoc Tho (choice of many to succeed Diem should a coup occur), who in detailed terms obliterated Taylor\'s information that the military was succeeding in the countryside.[100] The mission report, after it had been through the NSC, nevertheless retained, at Kennedy\'s insistence, a recommended schedule for troop withdrawals: 1000 by year\'s end and complete withdrawal in 1965, something the NSC considered strategic fantasy.[101] The final report also portrayed military progress, an increasingly unpopular Diem-led government, not vulnerable to a coup, albeit possible internal assassination.[clarification needed][102] In late October, intelligence wires again reported a coup of the Diem government was afoot. The source, Duong Van Minh a/k/a \"Big Minh\" wanted to know the U.S. position. Kennedy\'s instructions to Lodge were to offer covert assistance to the coup, excluding assassination, but to ensure deniability by the U.S.[103] Later that month, as the coup became imminent, Kennedy ordered all cables routed through him, and a policy of \"control and cut out\" was initiated – to insure presidential control of U.S. responses, while cutting him out of the paper trail.[104] On November 1, 1963, South Vietnamese generals, led by \"Big Minh\", overthrew the Diem government, arresting and then killing Diem and his brother Nhu. Kennedy was shocked by the deaths and by finding out afterwards that Minh had asked the CIA field office to secure safe passage out of the country for Diem and Nhu, but was told 24 hours was needed to get a plane. Minh responded that he could not hold them that long and thus handed them a death sentence.[105] Initially after news of the coup, there was renewed confidence in America and South Vietnam, that now the war might be won.[106] McGeorge Bundy drafted a National Security Action Memo to present to Kennedy upon his return from Dallas. It reiterated U.S. resolve to fight communism in Vietnam, with both military and economic aid at a higher level, including operations in Laos and Cambodia. Before leaving for Dallas, Kennedy told Mike Forrestal that \"after the first of the year ... [he wanted] an in depth study of every possible option, including how to get out of there ... to review this whole thing from the bottom to the top\". When asked what he thought the president meant, Forrestal said, \"it was devil\'s advocate stuff.\"[107] Historians disagree on whether Vietnam would have escalated to the point it did, had Kennedy survived and been re-elected in 1964.[108] Fueling the debate are statements made by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the film, \"The Fog of War\", that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election. The film also contains a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson stating that Kennedy was planning to withdraw, a position Johnson states he strongly disapproved.[109][page needed] Further, Kennedy had signed National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, dated October 11, 1963, which ordered the withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963.[110][111][page needed] Nevertheless, given the reasons stated for the overthrow of the Diem government, such action would have been a policy reversal, but Kennedy was moving in a less hawkish direction since his acclaimed speech about World Peace at American University on June 10, 1963.[112] According to historian Lawrence Freedman, Kennedy\'s statements about withdrawing from Vietnam, were \"less of a definite decision than a working assumption, based on a hope for stability rather than an expectation of chaos\".[113] Some of the details of Kennedy\'s involvement in Vietnam were classified until the release of the Pentagon Papers in 1971.[114] U.S. involvement in the region escalated until Lyndon Johnson, his successor, directly deployed regular U.S. military forces for fighting the Vietnam War.[115][116] After Kennedy\'s assassination, the new President Lyndon B. Johnson immediately reversed his predecessor\'s order to withdraw 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963 with his own NSAM 273 on November 26, 1963.[117] American University speech Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963. Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Strategy of Peace On June 10, 1963, Kennedy delivered the commencement address at American University in Washington, D.C., \"to discuss a topic on which too often ignorance abounds and the truth is too rarely perceived - yet it is the most important topic on earth: world peace...I speak of peace because of the new face of war...in an age when a singular nuclear weapon contains ten times the explosive force delivered by all the allied forces in the Second World War...an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by wind and air and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn...I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men...world peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbor - it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance...our problems are man-made - therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants.\"[118] The president also made two announcements - that the Soviets had expressed a desire to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty and that the U.S had postponed planned atmospheric tests.[119] World Peace Speech Speech from American University by John F. Kennedy, June 10, 1963 (duration 26:47) Problems listening to this file? See media help. West Berlin speech Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech Ich bin ein Berliner speech from the Rathaus Schöneberg by John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963 (duration 9:01) Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech (audio) Audio-only version (duration 9:22) Kennedy delivering his speech in Berlin Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt, March 1961 Wikisource has original text related to this article: JFK\'s Ich bin ein Berliner speech In 1963, Germany was enduring a time of particular vulnerability, due to Soviet aggression to the east, de Gaulle\'s French nationalism to the west, and the impending retirement of German Chancellor Adenauer.[120] On June 26, 1963, Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech reiterating American commitment to Germany and criticizing communism; he was met with an ecstatic response from a massive audience. Kennedy used the construction of the Berlin Wall as an example of the failures of communism: \"Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in.\" The speech is known for its famous phrase \"Ich bin ein Berliner\" (\"I am a citizen of Berlin\"). Nearly five-sixths of the population was on the street for the speech.[121] He remarked to Ted Sorensen afterwards: \"We\'ll never have another day like this one, as long as we live.\"[122] Israel Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir with President Kennedy (1962) Kennedy encountered problems with the Israeli government regarding the production of nuclear weapons in Dimona. After the existence of a nuclear plant was initially denied by the Israeli government, David Ben-Gurion, in a speech to the Israeli Knesset on December 21, 1960, stated that the purpose of the nuclear plant at Beersheba was for \"research in problems of arid zones and desert flora and fauna\".[123] When Ben-Gurion met with Kennedy in New York, he claimed that Dimona was being developed to provide nuclear power for desalinization and \"for the time being the only purposes [of the nuclear plant] are for peace\".[123] Kennedy did not believe this, and in May 1963 sent a letter to Ben-Gurion stating, \"this commitment and this support would seriously be jeopardized in the public opinion in this country and the West as a whole if it should be thought that this Government was unable to obtain reliable information on a subject as vital to peace as Israel\'s efforts in the nuclear field.\"[123] Ben-Gurion repeated previous reassurances that Dimona was being developed for peaceful purposes, and Israel firmly resisted American pressure to open its nuclear facilities to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections. According to Seymour Hersh, the Israelis set up false control rooms to show American inspectors. Abe Feinberg stated, \"It was part of my job to tip them off that Kennedy was insisting on [an inspection].\"[124] The State Department argued that if Israel wanted arms, it should in return accept international supervision of its nuclear program.[124] Kennedy had tried to control the arms being sold and given to Israel because the Israelis would not sign the IAEA compacts for the Dimona nuclear site, would not fully admit its purpose and continued to insist it was for peaceful energy purposes. In early March 1965, the director of the State Department\'s Office of Near Eastern Affairs, Rodger P. Davies, had come to the conclusion that Israel was developing nuclear weapons. He reported that the target date for acquisition of a nuclear capability by Israel was 1968-69. A science attache at the embassy in Tel Aviv concluded that parts of the Dimona facility had been \"purposely mothballed\" to mislead American scientists during their visit.[125] Dimona was never placed under IAEA safeguards. On May 1, 1968, Undersecretary of State Katzenbach told President Johnson that Dimona was producing enough plutonium to produce two bombs a year. Attempts to write Israeli adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) into contracts for the supply of U.S. weapons continued throughout 1968.[126] Iraq In 1963, the Kennedy administration backed a coup against the government of Iraq headed by General Abdel Karim Kassem, who five years earlier had deposed the Western-allied Iraqi monarchy. The CIA helped the new Ba\'ath Party government led by Abdul Salam Arif in ridding the country of suspected leftists and Communists. In a Ba\'athist coup, the government used lists of suspected Communists and other leftists provided by the CIA, to systematically murder untold numbers of Iraq\'s educated elite—killings in which Saddam Hussein himself is said to have participated. The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers, other professionals, military and political figures.[127][128][129] According to an op-ed in The New York Times, the U.S. sent arms to the new regime, weapons later used against the same Kurdish insurgents the U.S. supported against Kassem and then abandoned him. American and UK oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel, and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.[127] Ireland Further information: The Ireland Funds President Kennedy in motorcade in the Republic of Ireland on June 27, 1963 On the occasion of his visit to the Republic of Ireland in 1963, President Kennedy joined with Irish President Éamon de Valera to form The American Irish Foundation. The mission of this organization was to foster connections between Americans of Irish descent and the country of their ancestry. Kennedy furthered these connections of cultural solidarity by accepting a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland. Kennedy had near-legendary status in Ireland, due to his ancestral ties to the country. Irish citizens who were alive in 1963 often have very strong memories of Kennedy\'s momentous visit.[130] He also visited the original cottage at Dunganstown, near New Ross, where previous Kennedys had lived before emigrating to America, and said: \"This is where it all began ...\" On December 22, 2006, the Irish Department of Justice released declassified police documents that indicated that Kennedy was the subject of three death threats during this visit. Though these threats were determined to be hoaxes, security was heightened.[131] Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed on the desirability of negotiating a nuclear test ban treaty, originally conceived in Adlai Stevenson\'s 1956 presidential campaign.[132] In their Vienna summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but Khrushchev began testing nuclear weapons that September and Kennedy responded by conducting tests 5 days later.[133] Shortly thereafter, new U.S satellites began delivering images which made it clear that the Soviets were substantially behind the U.S. in the \"missile gap\".[134] Nevertheless, the greater nuclear strength of the U.S. was of little value as long as the U.S.S.R. perceived themselves to be at parity.[135] In July 1963 the stage was set for negotiations, and Kennedy sent Averell Harriman to Moscow to negotiate a treaty with the Soviets.[136] The introductory sessions began with Khrushchev, who then delegated Soviet representation to Andrei Gromyko. It quickly became clear that the stated objective of a comprehensive test ban would not reach fruition, due largely to the reluctance of the Soviets for inspections to verify compliance.[137] Ultimately, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to a limited treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but not underground; the U.S. Senate ratified this and Kennedy signed it into law in October 1963. France was quick to declare that it was free to further develop and test its nuclear defenses.[138] Domestic policy Kennedy called his domestic program the \"New Frontier\". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession. Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination. In his 1963 State of the Union, he proposed substantial tax reform and reduction, in income tax rates, from the current range of 20-90% to a range of 14-65%; he proposed a reduction in the corporate tax rates from 52 to 47%. Congress did not act until 1964, after his death. To the Economics Club of N.Y., he spoke in 1963 of \"...the paradoxical truth that tax rates are too high and revenues too low; and the soundest way to raise revenue in the long term is to lower rates now.\"[139] Few of Kennedy\'s major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65.[140] Economy Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and encourage growth of the economy.[141] Kennedy presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark, in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 led to the country\'s first non-war, non-recession deficit.[142] The economy, which had been through two recessions in three years and was in one when Kennedy took office, accelerated notably during his brief presidency. Despite low inflation and interest rates, GDP had grown by an average of only 2.2% during the Eisenhower presidency (scarcely more than population growth at the time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower\'s last twelve months in office.[143] Stagnation had taken a toll on the nation\'s labor market, as well: unemployment had risen steadily from under 3% in 1953 to 7%, by early 1961.[144] The economy turned around and prospered during the Kennedy administration. GDP expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963,[143] while inflation remained steady at around 1% and unemployment eased;[144][145] industrial production rose by 15% and motor vehicle sales leapt by 40%.[146] This rate of growth in GDP and industry continued until around 1966, and has yet to be repeated for such a sustained period of time.[143] There were nevertheless some painful moments, as in the stock market, which had steadily declined since Kennedy\'s election, and which dropped a full 10% shortly after the administration\'s action on the steel industry in 1962.[147] The major steel companies announced in April 1962 a 3.5% price increase (the first in 3 years) within a day of each other. This came just days after the companies had reached a settlement with the steelworkers\' union, providing in chief a wage increase of 2.5%. The administration was furious, with Kennedy saying, \"Why did they do this? Do they think they can get away with this? God, I hate the bastards.\" The president took personal charge of a campaign against the industry, assigning to each cabinet member a statement regarding the effects of the price increase on their area. Robert Kennedy, echoing his brother\'s own sentiments, \"We\'re going for broke...their expense accounts, where they\'ve been and what they\'ve been doing...the FBI is to interview them all...we can\'t lose this.\"[148] Robert took the position that the steel executives had illegally colluded in doing this. There was genuine concern about the inflationary effects of the price increase. The administration\'s actions influenced US Steel to rescind the price increase.[149] The Wall Street Journal wrote that the administration had acted \"by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police.\"[150] Yale law professor Charles Reich wrote in The New Republic his opinion that the administration had violated civil liberties by calling a grand jury to indict US Steel for collusion so quickly.[150] A New York Times editorial praised Kennedy\'s actions and said that the steel industry\'s price increase \"imperils the economic welfare of the country by inviting a tidal wave of inflation.\"[151] Nevertheless, the administration\'s Bureau of Budget reported the price increase would have resulted in a net gain for GDP as well as a net budget surplus.[152] Kennedy had little knowledge of the agricultural sector of the economy, and farmers were definitely not on his list of priorities, at least in his 1960 campaign. After giving a speech to a farming community, he rhetorically asked an aide, \"Did you understand any of what I just said in there? I sure didn\'t.\"[153] Federal and military death penalty As President, Kennedy oversaw the last pre-Furman federal execution,[154] and, as of 2008, the last military execution. Governor of Iowa Harold Hughes, a death penalty opponent, personally contacted Kennedy to request clemency for Victor Feguer,[155] who was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa, but Kennedy turned down the request[156] and Feguer was executed on March 15, 1963. Kennedy commuted a death sentence imposed by military court on seaman Jimmie Henderson on February 12, 1962, changing the penalty to life in prison.[157] On March 22, 1962, Kennedy signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), abolishing the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction in the United States with a mandatory death sentence for first degree murder, replacing it with life imprisonment with parole if the jury could not decide between life imprisonment and the death penalty, or if the jury chose life imprisonment by a unanimous vote.[158][159] The death penalty in the District of Columbia has not been applied since 1957, and has now been abolished.[160] Civil rights The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. The Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court\'s decision. Segregation had also been prohibited by the Court at other public facilities (e.g. buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches) but continued nonetheless. Kennedy verbally supported racial integration and civil rights; during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., who had been jailed while demonstrating for equal access of African Americans; Kennedy secured the early release of King, which drew additional black support to his candidacy.[161] Nevertheless President Kennedy believed the grass roots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, which was dominated by conservative Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it.[162] He also was more concerned with other issues early in his presidency, e.g. the \"Bay of Pigs\" fiasco and Southeast Asia. As articulated by brother Robert, the administration\'s early priority was to \"keep the president out of this civil rights mess\". As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the south, and who were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including law enforcement both federal and state. Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders as an alternative to using federal troops or uncooperative FBI agents. Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to \"get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts.\"[163] In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering. Attorney General Robert Kennedy responded by sending some 400 U.S. Marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly federalized and sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[164] Campus Riots left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or \"related facilities\".[165] In early 1963, Kennedy related to Martin Luther King, Jr., about the prospects for civil rights legislation: \"If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill.\"[166] However, civil rights clashes were very much on the rise that year.[167] Brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front.[168] On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the President, and which had hours earlier been under Wallace\'s command. That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation - to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.[169][170] His proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The day ended with the murder of a N.A.A.C.P. leader, Medgar Evers, at his home in Mississippi.[171] As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.[172] Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women on December 14, 1961.[173] Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt led the commission. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963.[174] Earlier, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex.[175] Over a hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans, gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. Kennedy feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. He turned over some of the details of the government\'s involvement to the Dept. of Justice, which channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to the six sponsors of the March, including the N.A.A.C.P. and Martin Luther King\'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). To ensure a peaceful demonstration, the organizers and the president personally edited speeches which were inflammatory and agreed the March would be held on a Wednesday and would be over at 4:00 pm Thousands of troops were placed on standby. Kennedy watched King\'s speech on TV and was very impressed. The March was considered a \"triumph of managed protest\", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken. Kennedy felt the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.[176] Nevertheless, the struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on a Sunday at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; at the end of the day six children had died in the explosion and aftermath.[177] As a result of this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some dr
Bill Gates, (gates@microsoft.us), 25.09.2011 - 04:33
John F. Kennedy From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia \"JFK\", \"John Kennedy\", and \"Jack Kennedy\" redirect here. For other uses, see JFK (disambiguation), John Kennedy (disambiguation), and Jack Kennedy (disambiguation). John F. Kennedy 35th President of the United States In office January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Vice President Lyndon Johnson Preceded by Dwight Eisenhower Succeeded by Lyndon Johnson United States Senator from Massachusetts In office January 3, 1953 – December 22, 1960 Preceded by Henry Lodge Succeeded by Benjamin Smith Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts\'s 11th district In office January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953 Preceded by James Curler Succeeded by Tip O\'Neill Personal details Born May 29, 1917 Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S. Died November 22, 1963 (aged 46) Dallas, Texas, U.S. Political party Democratic Party Spouse(s) Jacqueline Bouvier Children Arabella Caroline John Patrick Alma mater Harvard College Profession Author Religion Roman Catholicism Signature Military service Allegiance United States Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 1941–1945 Rank Lieutenant Unit Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 Battles/wars World War II • Solomon Islands campaign Awards Navy and Marine Corps Medal Purple Heart American Defense Service Medal American Campaign Medal Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (3 bronze stars) World War II Victory Medal[1] John Fitzgerald \"Jack\" Kennedy pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 and Motor Torpedo Boat PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts\'s 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43,[2][3] the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first president to have been born in the 20th century.[4] Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize.[5] Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the possibility of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.[6] Contents [hide] 1 Early life and education 2 Military service 3 Congressional career 3.1 House of Representatives 3.2 Senate 4 1960 presidential election 5 Presidency 5.1 Foreign policy 5.1.1 Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion 5.1.2 Cuban Missile Crisis 5.1.3 Latin America and communism 5.1.4 Peace Corps 5.1.5 Southeast Asia 5.1.6 American University speech 5.1.7 West Berlin speech 5.1.8 Israel 5.1.9 Iraq 5.1.10 Ireland 5.1.11 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 5.2 Domestic policy 5.2.1 Economy 5.2.2 Federal and military death penalty 5.2.3 Civil rights 5.2.4 Civil liberties 5.2.5 Immigration 5.2.6 Space program 5.2.7 Native American relations 6 Assassination 6.1 Funeral 7 Administration, Cabinet and judicial appointments 1961–1963 7.1 Judicial appointments 7.1.1 Supreme Court 7.1.2 Other courts 8 Image, social life and family 9 Ancestors 10 Legacy 10.1 Eponyms 10.2 Memorials 11 Coat of arms 12 Media 13 In other media and popular culture 14 See also 15 Footnotes 16 References 17 External links Early life and education John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts on Tuesday, May 29, 1917, at 3:00 pm,[7] the second son of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr., and Rose Fitzgerald; Rose, in turn, was the eldest child of John \"Honey Fitz\" Fitzgerald, a prominent Boston political figure who was the city\'s mayor and a three-term member of Congress. Kennedy lived in Brookline for ten years and attended Edward Devotion School, Noble and Greenough Lower School, and the Dexter School, through 4th grade. In 1927, the family moved to 5040 Independence Avenue in Riverdale, Bronx, New York City; two years later, they moved to 294 Pondfield Road in Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Scout Troop 2 (and was the first Boy Scout to become President).[8] Kennedy spent summers with his family at their home in Hyannisport, Massachusetts, and Christmas and Easter holidays with his family at their winter home in Palm Beach, Florida. For the 5th through 7th grade, Kennedy attended Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys. For 8th grade in September 1930, the 13-year old Kennedy attended Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. In late April 1931, he had appendicitis requiring an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy was sent to The Choate School in Wallingford, Connecticut, for his 9th through 12th grade years. His older brother Joe Jr., was already at Choate, two years ahead of him, a football star and leading student in the school. Jack spent his first years at Choate in his brother\'s shadow, and compensated for this with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie. Their most notorious stunt was to explode a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the ensuing chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain \"muckers\" who would \"spit in our sea\". The defiant Jack Kennedy took the cue and named his group \"The Muckers Club\", which included roommate and friend Kirk LeMoyne \"Lem\" Billings. While at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems, culminating in 1934 with his emergency hospitalization at Yale - New Haven Hospital. In June 1934, he was admitted to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota and diagnosed with colitis. Kennedy graduated from Choate in June 1935. For the school yearbook, of which he had been business manager, Kennedy was voted the \"Most likely to Succeed\".[9] In September 1935, he made his first trip abroad, with his parents and sister Kathleen, to London, with the intent of studying at the London School of Economics (LSE) as his older brother Joe had done. There is uncertainty about what he did at LSE before returning to America in October 1935, when he enrolled late and spent six weeks at Princeton University. He was then hospitalized for two months of observation for possible leukemia at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. He convalesced further at the Kennedy winter home in Palm Beach, then spent the spring of 1936 working as a ranch hand on a 40,000-acre (160 km2) cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona. That summer he raced sailboats at the Kennedy home in Hyannisport. In September 1936, Kennedy enrolled at Harvard College, where he produced that year\'s annual \"Freshman Smoker\", called by a reviewer \"an elaborate entertainment, which included in its cast outstanding personalities of the radio, screen and sports world\".[10] He tried out for the football, golf, and swim teams and earned a spot on the varsity swim team.[11] In July 1937, Kennedy sailed to France, with his convertible on board, and spent ten weeks driving through Europe with Billings. In June 1938, Kennedy sailed overseas with his father and brother Joe to work with his father, Roosevelt\'s U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James\'s, at the American embassy in London. In August the family went to a villa near Cannes. In 1939, Kennedy toured Europe, the Soviet Union, the Balkans, and the Middle East in preparation for his Harvard senior honors thesis. He then went to Czechoslovakia and Germany before returning to London on September 1, 1939, the day Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, 1939, the family was in the House of Commons for speeches endorsing the United Kingdom\'s declaration of war on Germany. Kennedy was sent as his father\'s representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of the SS Athenia, before flying back to the U.S. from Foynes, Ireland to Port Washington, New York on his first transatlantic flight. As an upperclassman at Harvard, Kennedy became a more serious student and developed an interest in political philosophy. In his junior year he made the Dean’s List.[12] In 1940, Kennedy completed his thesis, \"Appeasement in Munich\", about British participation in the Munich Agreement. He initially intended his thesis to be private, but his father encouraged him to publish it. He graduated from Harvard College with a S.B. cum laude in international affairs in 1940.[12] His thesis, published that year as a book entitled Why England Slept, became a bestseller.[13] Kennedy enrolled and audited classes at the Stanford Graduate School of Business.[when?] In early 1941, he helped his father complete the writing of a memoir of his three years as an American ambassador and then traveled throughout South America. Military service Main article: Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 In September 1941, after medical disqualification by the Army for his chronic lower back problems, Kennedy joined the U.S. Navy, with the influence of the director of the Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI), former naval attaché to Joseph Kennedy.[14] Kennedy was an ensign serving in the office of the Secretary of the Navy when the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred. He then attended the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps and Motor Torpedo Boat Squadron Training Center, was assigned duty in Panama and later in the Pacific theater where he earned the rank of lieutenant, commanding a patrol torpedo (PT) boat.[15] LTJG Kennedy on his navy patrol boat, the PT-109 On August 2, 1943, Kennedy\'s boat, PT-109, along with PT-162 and PT-169, were ordered to continue nighttime patrol near New Georgia in the Solomon Islands,[16] when it was rammed by the Japanese destroyer Amagiri.[17] Kennedy gathered his surviving crew members together in the water around the wreckage, to vote on whether to \"fight or surrender\". Kennedy stated, \"There\'s nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose.\" Shunning surrender, the men swam towards a small island.[18] Kennedy, despite re-injury to his back in the collision, towed a badly burned crewman through the water with a life jacket strap clenched between his teeth.[19] He towed the wounded man to the island and later to a second island from where his crew was subsequently rescued.[20] For these actions, Kennedy received the Navy and Marine Corps Medal with the following citation: For extremely heroic conduct as Commanding Officer of Motor Torpedo Boat 109 following the collision and sinking of that vessel in the Pacific War Theater on August 1–2, 1943. Unmindful of personal danger, Lieutenant (then Lieutenant, Junior Grade) Kennedy unhesitatingly braved the difficulties and hazards of darkness to direct rescue operations, swimming many hours to secure aid and food after he had succeeded in getting his crew ashore. His outstanding courage, endurance and leadership contributed to the saving of several lives and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service. In October 1943, Kennedy took command of a PT boat converted into a gun boat, PT-59, which in November took part in a Marine rescue on Choiseul Island.[21] Kennedy was honorably discharged in early 1945, just prior to Japan\'s surrender. Kennedy\'s other decorations in World War II included the Purple Heart, American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three bronze service stars, and the World War II Victory Medal.[1] When later asked by a reporter how he became a war hero, Kennedy joked: \"It was involuntary. They sank my boat.\"[22] Congressional career House of Representatives While Kennedy was still serving, his older brother Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. was killed in action on August 12, 1944 while part of Operation Aphrodite. Since Joe Jr. had been the family\'s political standard-bearer,[23] the task now fell on John. In 1946, U.S. Representative James Michael Curley vacated his seat in the strong Democratic 10th Congressional district in Massachusetts to become mayor of Boston. Kennedy ran for the seat, beating his Republican opponent by a large margin; this, despite not having previously included politics in his career planning. He was a congressman for six years but had a mixed voting record, often diverging from President Harry S. Truman and the rest of the Democratic Party. Senate In 1952, he defeated incumbent Republican Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. for the U.S. Senate. The following year he was married to wife Jacqueline.[24] Kennedy underwent several spinal operations over the following two years, was at times critically ill and received Catholic last rites, and was often absent from the Senate. During his convalescence in 1956, he published Profiles in Courage, a book about U.S. Senators who risked their careers for their personal beliefs, and which received the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in 1957.[25] Rumors that this work was co-authored by his close adviser and speechwriter, Ted Sorensen, were confirmed in Sorensen\'s 2008 autobiography.[26] At the 1956 Democratic National Convention, Kennedy was nominated for Vice President, for the presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson, but finished second in that balloting to Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee. Kennedy received national exposure from that episode; his father thought it just as well that his son lost, due to the political debility of his Catholicism, and the strength of the Eisenhower ticket. One of the matters demanding Kennedy\'s attention in the Senate was President Eisenhower\'s bill for the Civil Rights Act of 1957[27] Kennedy cast a procedural vote on this which was considered by some as an appeasement of Southern Democratic opponents of the bill.[27] Kennedy did vote for Title III of the act, which would have given the Attorney General powers to enjoin, but Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson agreed to let the provision die as a compromise measure.[28] Kennedy also voted for Title IV, termed the \"Jury Trial Amendment\". Many civil rights advocates at the time criticized that vote as one which would weaken the act.[29] A final compromise bill, which Kennedy supported, was passed in September 1957.[30][31] In 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin. Senator Joseph McCarthy was a friend of the Kennedy family; Joseph Kennedy, Sr. was a leading McCarthy supporter, Robert F. Kennedy worked for McCarthy\'s subcommittee, and McCarthy dated Patricia Kennedy. In 1954, when the Senate voted to censure McCarthy, Kennedy had drafted, but not delivered, a speech supporting the censure, but was in the hospital. Though absent, he could have participated procedurally by \"pairing\" his vote against that of another senator, but did not do so. He never indicated how he would have voted, but the episode damaged Kennedy\'s support in the liberal community, including Eleanor Roosevelt, in the 1956 and 1960 elections.[32] 1960 presidential election Main article: United States presidential election, 1960 On January 2, 1960, Kennedy initiated his campaign for President in the Democratic primary election, where he faced challenges from Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon. Kennedy defeated Humphrey in Wisconsin and West Virginia, Morse in Maryland and Oregon, as well as token opposition (often write-in candidates) in New Hampshire, Indiana, and Nebraska. Kennedy made a point of visiting a coal mine in West Virginia; most miners and others in that predominantly conservative, Protestant state were quite wary of Kennedy\'s Roman Catholicism. His victory in West Virginia confirmed his broad popular appeal. At the Democratic Convention, he gave his well-known \"New Frontier\" speech, saying: \"For the problems are not all solved and the battles are not all won—and we stand today on the edge of a New Frontier ... But the New Frontier of which I speak is not a set of promises—it is a set of challenges. It sums up not what I intend to offer the American people, but what I intend to ask of them.\"[33] John and Jackie Kennedy campaigning in Appleton, Wisconsin, March 1960 With Humphrey and Morse eliminated, Kennedy\'s main opponent at the Los Angeles convention was Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas. Kennedy overcame this formal challenge as well as informal ones from Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic nominee in 1952 and 1956, Stuart Symington, as well as several favorite sons, and on July 13 the Democratic convention nominated Kennedy as its candidate. Kennedy asked Johnson to be his Vice Presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy\'s own staff, including brother Robert. He needed Johnson\'s strength in the South to win what was considered likely to be the closest election since 1916. Major issues included how to get the economy moving again, Kennedy\'s Roman Catholicism, Cuba, and whether the Soviet space and missile programs had surpassed those of the U.S. To address fears that his being Catholic would impact his decision-making, he famously told the Greater Houston Ministerial Association on September 12, 1960, \"I am not the Catholic candidate for President. I am the Democratic Party candidate for President who also happens to be a Catholic. I do not speak for my Church on public matters – and the Church does not speak for me.\"[34] Kennedy questioned rhetorically whether one-quarter of Americans were relegated to second-class citizenship just because they were Catholic, and once stated that, \"No one asked me my religion [serving the Navy] in the South Pacific.\"[35] In September and October, Kennedy appeared with Republican candidate Richard Nixon, then Vice President, in the first televised U.S. presidential debates in U.S. history. During these programs, Nixon, with a sore injured leg and his \"five o\'clock shadow\", looked tense, uncomfortable, and perspiring, while Kennedy, choosing to avail himself of makeup services, appeared relaxed, leading the huge television audience to favor Kennedy as the winner. Radio listeners either thought Nixon had won or that the debates were a draw.[36] The debates are now considered a milestone in American political history—the point at which the medium of television began to play a dominant role in politics.[25] After the first debate Kennedy\'s campaign gained momentum and he pulled slightly ahead of Nixon in most polls. On Tuesday, November 8, Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the twentieth century. In the national popular vote Kennedy led Nixon by just two-tenths of one percent (49.7% to 49.5%), while in the Electoral College he won 303 votes to Nixon\'s 219 (269 were needed to win). Another 14 electors from Mississippi and Alabama refused to support Kennedy because of his support for the civil rights movement; they voted for Senator Harry F. Byrd of Virginia. He was the youngest man elected president, succeeding Eisenhower who was then the oldest (Ronald Reagan surpassed Eisenhower as the oldest president in 1981).[37] Presidency Wikisource has original text related to this article: John F. Kennedy\'s Inaugural Address See also: Timeline of the presidency of John F. Kennedy John F. Kennedy was sworn in as the 35th President at noon on January 20, 1961. In his inaugural address he spoke of the need for all Americans to be active citizens, famously saying, \"Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.\" He also asked the nations of the world to join together to fight what he called the \"common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.\" He added: \"All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.\" In closing, he expanded on his desire for greater internationalism: \"Finally, whether you are citizens of America or citizens of the world, ask of us here the same high standards of strength and sacrifice which we ask of you.\"[38] In its scope, the address also reflected Kennedy’s confidence that his administration would chart a historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through the early years of his administration.[39] Kennedy brought to the White House a stark contrast in organization compared to the decision making structure of the former general, Eisenhower; and he wasted no time in dismantling it.[40] Kennedy preferred the organizational structure of a wheel, with all the spokes leading to the president. He was ready and willing to make the increased number of quick decisions required in such an environment, and did a monumental job of selecting his cabinet and other appointments, some experienced and some not. In those cases of inexperience, he stated, \"we can learn our jobs together\".[41] There were a couple instances where the president got ahead of himself, as when he announced in a cabinet meeting, without prior notice, that Edward Lansdale would be Ambassador to South Vietnam, a decision which Secretary of State Rusk later had Kennedy alter.[42] There was also the rapid appointment of Harris Wofford who was summoned and arrived at the White House for swearing in, without knowing the position he was to assume.[43] Kennedy further demonstrated his decision making agility with Congress and his staff. Much to the chagrin of his economic advisors who wanted him to reduce taxes, he quickly agreed to a balanced budget pledge when this was needed in exchange for votes to expand the membership of the House Rules Committee in order to give the Democrats a majority in setting the legislative agenda.[44] The president insisted on a focus upon immediate and specific issues facing the administration, and quickly voiced his impatience with ponderings of deeper meanings. Deputy national security advisor, Walt Whitman Rostow, once began a diatribe about the growth of communism and Kennedy abruptly cut him off, asking, \"What do you want me to do about that today?\"[45] Foreign policy Main article: Foreign policy of the John F. Kennedy administration Foreign trips of John F. Kennedy during his presidency President Kennedy\'s foreign policy was dominated by American-Soviet confrontations, manifested by proxy contests in the early stage of the Cold War. In 1961 Kennedy anxiously anticipated a summit with Nikita Khrushchev. Unfortunately, he [Kennedy] started off on the wrong foot by reacting aggressively to a routine Khrushchev speech on Cold War confrontation in early 1961. The speech was intended for domestic audiences in the Soviet Union, but Kennedy interpreted it as a personal challenge. His mistake helped raise tensions going into the Vienna Summit.[46] On the way to the summit was a stop in Paris in June to meet Charles de Gaulle, whose advice to Kennedy was to expect and ignore the abrasive style of Khrushchev. The French president was nationalistic, and disdainful of the United States\' presumed influence in Europe, in his talks with Kennedy. Nevertheless de Gaulle was quite impressed with the young president and family. Kennedy picked up on this in his speech in Paris, saying he would be remembered as \"the man who accompanied Jackie Kennedy to Paris.\"[47] On June 4, 1961 the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna and left the meetings angry and disappointed that he had allowed the Premier to bully him, despite warnings received. Khrushchev for his part was impressed with the president\'s intelligence but thought him weak. Kennedy did succeed in conveying the bottom line to Khrushchev on the most sensitive issue before them, a proposed treaty between Moscow and East Berlin. He made it clear that any such treaty which interfered with U.S access rights in West Berlin would be regarded as an act of war.[48] Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Kennedy and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the White House Cabinet Room on April 13, 1962 Shortly after the president returned home, the U.S.S.R. announced an intent to sign a treaty with East Berlin, abrogating any third party occupation rights in either sector of the city. A depressed and angry president then assumed his obligation was to prepare the country for nuclear war as the only option, and which he then personally thought had a one in five chance of occurring.[49] In the weeks immediately after the Vienna summit, more than 20 thousand people fled from East Berlin to the western sector in reaction to statements from the U.S.S.R. Kennedy began intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson took the lead in recommending a military buildup with NATO allies as the appropriate response.[50] In a July 1961 speech, Kennedy announced his decision to add $3.25 billion to the defense budget, along with over 200 thousand additional troops for the military, saying an attack on West Berlin would be taken as an attack on the U.S. The speech received an 85% approval rating.[51] The following month, the U.S.S.R. and East Berlin officials began blocking any further passage of East Berliners into West Berlin, erecting barbed wire fences across the city, which were quickly upgraded to the Berlin Wall. Kennedy\'s initial reaction was to ignore this, as long as free access from West to East Berlin continued. This course was altered when it was learned that the West Berliners had lost confidence in the defense of their position by the United States. Kennedy sent V.P. Johnson, along with a host of other military personnel, in convoy through West Germany, including Soviet armed checkpoints, to demonstrate the continued commitment of the U.S. to West Berlin.[52] John F. Kennedy gave a speech at Saint Anselm College on May 5, 1960, regarding America\'s conduct in the emerging Cold War. Kennedy\'s speech detailed how American foreign policy should be conducted towards African nations, noting a hint of support for modern African nationalism by saying that \"For we, too, founded a new nation on revolt from colonial rule\".[53] Cuba and the Bay of Pigs Invasion Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion Prior to Kennedy\'s election to the presidency, the Eisenhower Administration created a plan to overthrow the Fidel Castro regime in Cuba. Central to the plan, led by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with help from the US Military,[54] but with no covert help from the United States, was the arming of a counter-revolutionary insurgency composed of anti-Castro Cuban exiles[55] U.S.-trained Cuban insurgents, led by CIA paramilitary officers were to invade Cuba and instigate an uprising among the Cuban people in hopes of removing Castro from power.[56] On April 17, 1961, Kennedy ordered the previously planned invasion of Cuba to proceed. In what is known as the \"Bay of Pigs Invasion\", 1,500 U.S.-trained Cubans, called \"Brigade 2506,\" returned to the island in the hope of deposing Castro. In keeping with prior plans, no U.S. air support was provided. As CIA director Allen Dulles latter stated, they thought that once the troops were on the ground any action required for success would be authorized by the president to prevent failure.[57] By April 19, 1961, the Cuban government had captured or killed the invading exiles, and Kennedy was forced to negotiate for the release of the 1,189 survivors. After twenty months, Cuba released the captured exiles in exchange for $53 million worth of food and medicine.[58] Furthermore, the incident made Castro wary of the U.S. and led him to believe that another invasion would occur.[59] According to biographer Richard Reeves, Kennedy primarily focused on the political repercussions of the plan rather than the military considerations; when it failed, he was convinced the plan was a set up to make him look bad.[60] Nevertheless, in the end, Kennedy took the blame himself.[61] Afterwards, he opined, \"...We got a big kick in the leg and we deserved it. But maybe we\'ll learn something from it.\"[62] Late in 1961 the White House formed the \"Special Group (Augmented)\", headed by Robert Kennedy and including Edward Lansdale, Sec. McNamara and others. The group\'s objective, to overthrow Castro via espionage, sabotage and other covert tactics, was never pursued.[63] Cuban Missile Crisis Address on the Buildup of Arms in Cuba Kennedy addressing the nation on October 22, 1962 about the buildup of arms on Cuba Problems listening to this file? See media help. Meeting Nikita Khrushchev in 1961 Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis On October 14, 1962, CIA U-2 spy planes took photographs in Cuba of intermediate-range ballistic missile sites under construction by the Soviets in previous months. The deployment of these missiles had come to the attention of the intelligence community when Soviet shipments to Cuba began and a debate had ensued in the National Security Council (NSC) as to whether the intended use of the weapons was offensive or defensive. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, 1962, and a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature and thus posed an immediate nuclear threat.[64] Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U.S. attacked the sites, it might lead to nuclear war with the U.S.S.R., but if the U.S. did nothing, it would be faced with the increased threat from close range nuclear weapons. The U.S. would as well appear to the world as less committed to the defense of the hemisphere. On a personal level, Kennedy needed to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna summit.[65] More than a third of the members of the NSC favored an unannounced air assault on the missile sites, but for some of them this conjured up an image of \"Pearl Harbor in reverse\".[66] There was as well some reaction from the international community (asked in confidence) that the assault plan was an overreaction in light of U.S. missiles placed in Turkey by Eisenhower. There also could be no assurance from the Council that the assault would be 100% effective.[67] In concurrence with a majority vote of the NSC, Kennedy decided on a naval quarantine, and on October 22 dispatched a message of this to Khrushchev and announced the decision on TV.[68] The U.S. Navy would stop and inspect all Soviet ships arriving off Cuba, beginning October 24. The Organization of American States surprisingly gave unanimous support to the removal of the missiles. The president exchanged two sets of letters with Khrushchev to no avail.[69] UN Secretary General U Thant requested both parties reverse their decisions and allow a cooling off period. Khrushchev said yes but Kennedy replied no.[70] After one Soviet-flagged ship was stopped and boarded, on October 28 Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missile sites subject to UN inspections.[71] The U.S. publicly promised never to invade Cuba and privately agreed to remove its Jupiter missiles in Turkey, which were at that time obsolete and had been supplanted by missile-equipped US Navy Polaris subs.[72] This crisis had brought the world closer to nuclear war than at any point known before or since. In the end, \"the humanity\" of the two men prevailed.[73] The crisis improved the image of American willpower and the president\'s credibility. His approval rating increased from 66% to 77% immediately thereafter.[74] Latin America and communism Main article: Kennedy and Latin America Arguing that \"those who make peaceful revolution impossible, will make violent revolution inevitable,\"[75] Kennedy sought to contain communism in Latin America by establishing the Alliance for Progress, which sent aid to troubled countries and sought greater human rights standards in the region. He worked closely with Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín for the development of the Alliance of Progress, as well as developments in the autonomy of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. When the president took office the Eisenhower administration, through the CIA, has begun putting into place assassination plots in Cuba against Castro and in the Dominican Republic against Rafael Trujillo. Kennedy instructed the CIA privately that any such planning must include plausible deniability by the U.S. His public position was in opposition.[76] In June 1961 the Dominican Republic\'s leader was assassinated; in the days following the event, Undersecretary of State Chester Bowles led a cautious reaction by the nation, and Robert Kennedy, substituting for his brother who was in France, and who saw an opportunity for the U.S., called him \"a gutless bastard\" to his face.[77] Peace Corps Executive Order 10924 Establishment of the Peace Corps John F. Kennedy\'s announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps Problems listening to this file? See media help. As one of his first presidential acts, Kennedy asked Congress to create the Peace Corps.[3] His brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver was the first director. Through this program, Americans volunteer to help underdeveloped nations in areas such as education, farming, health care, and construction. The authorization grew to 5,000 members by March 1963 and 10,000 the following year.[78] Since 1961, over 200,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps, serving in 139 countries. Southeast Asia Main articles: 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, Reaction to the 1963 South Vietnamese coup, Cable 243, Buddhist crisis, Thích Quảng Đức, Xá Lợi Pagoda raids, Krulak Mendenhall mission, and McNamara Taylor mission When briefing Kennedy, Eisenhower emphasized the communist threat in Southeast Asia as requiring priority; Eisenhower considered Laos to be \"the cork in the bottle\" in regards to the regional threat. In March 1961, Kennedy voiced a change in policy from supporting a \"free\" Laos to a \"neutral\" Laos, indicating privately that Vietnam, and not Laos, should be deemed America\'s tripwire for communism\'s spread in the area.[79] In May 1961, he dispatched Lyndon Johnson to meet with South Vietnam\'s President Ngo Dinh Diem. Johnson assured Diem of more aid in molding a fighting force that could resist the Communists.[80] Kennedy announced a change of policy from support to partnership with Diem in defeat of communism in South Vietnam.[81] Kennedy initially followed Eisenhower\'s lead, by using limited military action to fight the Communist forces led by Ho Chi Minh.[82] Kennedy continued policies providing political, economic, and military support for the South Vietnamese government.[82] Late in 1961, the Viet Cong began assuming a predominant presence, initially seizing the provincial capital of Phuoc Vinh.[83] Kennedy increased the number of helicopters, military advisors and undeclared U.S. Special Forces in the area, but he was still reluctant to order a full scale deployment of troops.[84][85] Kennedy formally authorized escalated involvement when he signed the \"National Security Action Memorandum – Subversive Insurgency (War of Liberation)\" in early 1962.[86] Secretary of State, Dean Rusk voiced strong support for U.S. involvement, as illustrated in his emphatic statement in fall 1962 that, \"...neutralism [in South Vietnam] is not neutralism at all; it\'s tantamount to surrender\".[87] \"Operation Ranch Hand\", a broad scale aerial defoliation effort began on the roadsides in South Vietnam.[88][89] Kennedy with (then) future Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in the Oval office in 1963 In April 1963, Kennedy expressed his assessment of the situation in Vietnam: \"We don\'t have a prayer of staying in Vietnam. Those people hate us. They are going to throw our asses out of there at any point. But I can\'t give up that territory to the Communists and get the American people to re-elect me\".[90] By July 1963, Kennedy faced a crisis in Vietnam; despite increased U.S. support, the South Vietnamese military was only marginally effective against pro-Communist Viet Cong forces. On August 21, just as the new U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge arrived, Ngo Dinh Diem, and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu ordered South Vietnam forces, funded and trained by the CIA, to quell Buddhist demonstrations. The crackdowns heightened expectations of a coup d\'état to remove Diem with (or perhaps by) his brother, Nhu.[91] Lodge was instructed to try to get Diem and Nhu to step down and leave the country. Diem would not listen to Lodge.[92] Cable 243 (DEPTEL 243), dated August 24, followed, declaring Washington would no longer tolerate Nhu\'s actions, and Lodge was ordered to pressure Diem to remove his brother, Nhu. If Diem refused, the Americans would explore alternative leadership.[93] Lodge replied, stating the only workable option was to get the South Vietnamese generals to overthrow Diem and Nhu, as originally planned.[94] At week\'s end, Kennedy learned from Lodge that the Diem government might, due to France\'s assistance to Nhu, be dealing secretly with the Communists – and might ask the Americans to leave; orders were sent to Saigon and throughout Washington to \"destroy all coup cables\".[95] At the same time, the first formal anti-Vietnam war sentiment was expressed by U.S. clergy from the Ministers\' Vietnam Committee.[96] A White House meeting in September was indicative of the very different ongoing appraisals; the President was given updated assessments after personal inspections on the ground by the Department of Defense (Gen. Victor Krulak) and the State Department (Joseph Mendenhall). Krulak said the military fight against the communists was progressing and being won, while Mendenhall stated that the country was civilly being lost to any U.S. influence. Kennedy reacted, saying, \"Did you two gentlemen visit the same country?\" The president was unaware the two men were at such odds they did not speak on the return flight.[97] In October 1963, the president appointed Defense Secretary McNamara and Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor to a Vietnam mission in another effort to synchronize the information and formulation of policy. The objective of the McNamara Taylor mission \"emphasized the importance of getting to the bottom of the differences in reporting from U.S. representatives in Vietnam\".[98] In meetings with McNamara, Taylor and Lodge, Diem again refused to agree to governing measures insisted upon by the U.S., helping to dispel McNamara\'s previous optimism about Diem.[99] Taylor and McNamara were also enlightened by Vietnam\'s Vice President, Nguyen Ngoc Tho (choice of many to succeed Diem should a coup occur), who in detailed terms obliterated Taylor\'s information that the military was succeeding in the countryside.[100] The mission report, after it had been through the NSC, nevertheless retained, at Kennedy\'s insistence, a recommended schedule for troop withdrawals: 1000 by year\'s end and complete withdrawal in 1965, something the NSC considered strategic fantasy.[101] The final report also portrayed military progress, an increasingly unpopular Diem-led government, not vulnerable to a coup, albeit possible internal assassination.[clarification needed][102] In late October, intelligence wires again reported a coup of the Diem government was afoot. The source, Duong Van Minh a/k/a \"Big Minh\" wanted to know the U.S. position. Kennedy\'s instructions to Lodge were to offer covert assistance to the coup, excluding assassination, but to ensure deniability by the U.S.[103] Later that month, as the coup became imminent, Kennedy ordered all cables routed through him, and a policy of \"control and cut out\" was initiated – to insure presidential control of U.S. responses, while cutting him out of the paper trail.[104] On November 1, 1963, South Vietnamese generals, led by \"Big Minh\", overthrew the Diem government, arresting and then killing Diem and his brother Nhu. Kennedy was shocked by the deaths and by finding out afterwards that Minh had asked the CIA field office to secure safe passage out of the country for Diem and Nhu, but was told 24 hours was needed to get a plane. Minh responded that he could not hold them that long and thus handed them a death sentence.[105] Initially after news of the coup, there was renewed confidence in America and South Vietnam, that now the war might be won.[106] McGeorge Bundy drafted a National Security Action Memo to present to Kennedy upon his return from Dallas. It reiterated U.S. resolve to fight communism in Vietnam, with both military and economic aid at a higher level, including operations in Laos and Cambodia. Before leaving for Dallas, Kennedy told Mike Forrestal that \"after the first of the year ... [he wanted] an in depth study of every possible option, including how to get out of there ... to review this whole thing from the bottom to the top\". When asked what he thought the president meant, Forrestal said, \"it was devil\'s advocate stuff.\"[107] Historians disagree on whether Vietnam would have escalated to the point it did, had Kennedy survived and been re-elected in 1964.[108] Fueling the debate are statements made by Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara in the film, \"The Fog of War\", that Kennedy was strongly considering pulling out of Vietnam after the 1964 election. The film also contains a tape recording of Lyndon Johnson stating that Kennedy was planning to withdraw, a position Johnson states he strongly disapproved.[109][page needed] Further, Kennedy had signed National Security Action Memorandum (NSAM) 263, dated October 11, 1963, which ordered the withdrawal of 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963.[110][111][page needed] Nevertheless, given the reasons stated for the overthrow of the Diem government, such action would have been a policy reversal, but Kennedy was moving in a less hawkish direction since his acclaimed speech about World Peace at American University on June 10, 1963.[112] According to historian Lawrence Freedman, Kennedy\'s statements about withdrawing from Vietnam, were \"less of a definite decision than a working assumption, based on a hope for stability rather than an expectation of chaos\".[113] Some of the details of Kennedy\'s involvement in Vietnam were classified until the release of the Pentagon Papers in 1971.[114] U.S. involvement in the region escalated until Lyndon Johnson, his successor, directly deployed regular U.S. military forces for fighting the Vietnam War.[115][116] After Kennedy\'s assassination, the new President Lyndon B. Johnson immediately reversed his predecessor\'s order to withdraw 1,000 military personnel by the end of 1963 with his own NSAM 273 on November 26, 1963.[117] American University speech Kennedy delivers the commencement speech at American University, June 10, 1963. Wikisource has original text related to this article: A Strategy of Peace On June 10, 1963, Kennedy delivered the commencement address at American University in Washington, D.C., \"to discuss a topic on which too often ignorance abounds and the truth is too rarely perceived - yet it is the most important topic on earth: world peace...I speak of peace because of the new face of war...in an age when a singular nuclear weapon contains ten times the explosive force delivered by all the allied forces in the Second World War...an age when the deadly poisons produced by a nuclear exchange would be carried by wind and air and soil and seed to the far corners of the globe and to generations yet unborn...I speak of peace, therefore, as the necessary rational end of rational men...world peace, like community peace, does not require that each man love his neighbor - it requires only that they live together in mutual tolerance...our problems are man-made - therefore they can be solved by man. And man can be as big as he wants.\"[118] The president also made two announcements - that the Soviets had expressed a desire to negotiate a nuclear test ban treaty and that the U.S had postponed planned atmospheric tests.[119] World Peace Speech Speech from American University by John F. Kennedy, June 10, 1963 (duration 26:47) Problems listening to this file? See media help. West Berlin speech Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech Ich bin ein Berliner speech from the Rathaus Schöneberg by John F. Kennedy, June 26, 1963 (duration 9:01) Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) speech (audio) Audio-only version (duration 9:22) Kennedy delivering his speech in Berlin Kennedy meeting with West Berlin governing mayor Willy Brandt, March 1961 Wikisource has original text related to this article: JFK\'s Ich bin ein Berliner speech In 1963, Germany was enduring a time of particular vulnerability, due to Soviet aggression to the east, de Gaulle\'s French nationalism to the west, and the impending retirement of German Chancellor Adenauer.[120] On June 26, 1963, Kennedy visited West Berlin and gave a public speech reiterating American commitment to Germany and criticizing communism; he was met with an ecstatic response from a massive audience. Kennedy used the construction of the Berlin Wall as an example of the failures of communism: \"Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in.\" The speech is known for its famous phrase \"Ich bin ein Berliner\" (\"I am a citizen of Berlin\"). Nearly five-sixths of the population was on the street for the speech.[121] He remarked to Ted Sorensen afterwards: \"We\'ll never have another day like this one, as long as we live.\"[122] Israel Israeli Foreign Minister Golda Meir with President Kennedy (1962) Kennedy encountered problems with the Israeli government regarding the production of nuclear weapons in Dimona. After the existence of a nuclear plant was initially denied by the Israeli government, David Ben-Gurion, in a speech to the Israeli Knesset on December 21, 1960, stated that the purpose of the nuclear plant at Beersheba was for \"research in problems of arid zones and desert flora and fauna\".[123] When Ben-Gurion met with Kennedy in New York, he claimed that Dimona was being developed to provide nuclear power for desalinization and \"for the time being the only purposes [of the nuclear plant] are for peace\".[123] Kennedy did not believe this, and in May 1963 sent a letter to Ben-Gurion stating, \"this commitment and this support would seriously be jeopardized in the public opinion in this country and the West as a whole if it should be thought that this Government was unable to obtain reliable information on a subject as vital to peace as Israel\'s efforts in the nuclear field.\"[123] Ben-Gurion repeated previous reassurances that Dimona was being developed for peaceful purposes, and Israel firmly resisted American pressure to open its nuclear facilities to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections. According to Seymour Hersh, the Israelis set up false control rooms to show American inspectors. Abe Feinberg stated, \"It was part of my job to tip them off that Kennedy was insisting on [an inspection].\"[124] The State Department argued that if Israel wanted arms, it should in return accept international supervision of its nuclear program.[124] Kennedy had tried to control the arms being sold and given to Israel because the Israelis would not sign the IAEA compacts for the Dimona nuclear site, would not fully admit its purpose and continued to insist it was for peaceful energy purposes. In early March 1965, the director of the State Department\'s Office of Near Eastern Affairs, Rodger P. Davies, had come to the conclusion that Israel was developing nuclear weapons. He reported that the target date for acquisition of a nuclear capability by Israel was 1968-69. A science attache at the embassy in Tel Aviv concluded that parts of the Dimona facility had been \"purposely mothballed\" to mislead American scientists during their visit.[125] Dimona was never placed under IAEA safeguards. On May 1, 1968, Undersecretary of State Katzenbach told President Johnson that Dimona was producing enough plutonium to produce two bombs a year. Attempts to write Israeli adherence to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) into contracts for the supply of U.S. weapons continued throughout 1968.[126] Iraq In 1963, the Kennedy administration backed a coup against the government of Iraq headed by General Abdel Karim Kassem, who five years earlier had deposed the Western-allied Iraqi monarchy. The CIA helped the new Ba\'ath Party government led by Abdul Salam Arif in ridding the country of suspected leftists and Communists. In a Ba\'athist coup, the government used lists of suspected Communists and other leftists provided by the CIA, to systematically murder untold numbers of Iraq\'s educated elite—killings in which Saddam Hussein himself is said to have participated. The victims included hundreds of doctors, teachers, technicians, lawyers, other professionals, military and political figures.[127][128][129] According to an op-ed in The New York Times, the U.S. sent arms to the new regime, weapons later used against the same Kurdish insurgents the U.S. supported against Kassem and then abandoned him. American and UK oil and other interests, including Mobil, Bechtel, and British Petroleum, were conducting business in Iraq.[127] Ireland Further information: The Ireland Funds President Kennedy in motorcade in the Republic of Ireland on June 27, 1963 On the occasion of his visit to the Republic of Ireland in 1963, President Kennedy joined with Irish President Éamon de Valera to form The American Irish Foundation. The mission of this organization was to foster connections between Americans of Irish descent and the country of their ancestry. Kennedy furthered these connections of cultural solidarity by accepting a grant of armorial bearings from the Chief Herald of Ireland. Kennedy had near-legendary status in Ireland, due to his ancestral ties to the country. Irish citizens who were alive in 1963 often have very strong memories of Kennedy\'s momentous visit.[130] He also visited the original cottage at Dunganstown, near New Ross, where previous Kennedys had lived before emigrating to America, and said: \"This is where it all began ...\" On December 22, 2006, the Irish Department of Justice released declassified police documents that indicated that Kennedy was the subject of three death threats during this visit. Though these threats were determined to be hoaxes, security was heightened.[131] Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Troubled by the long-term dangers of radioactive contamination and nuclear weapons proliferation, Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed on the desirability of negotiating a nuclear test ban treaty, originally conceived in Adlai Stevenson\'s 1956 presidential campaign.[132] In their Vienna summit meeting in June 1961, Khrushchev and Kennedy reached an informal understanding against nuclear testing, but Khrushchev began testing nuclear weapons that September and Kennedy responded by conducting tests 5 days later.[133] Shortly thereafter, new U.S satellites began delivering images which made it clear that the Soviets were substantially behind the U.S. in the \"missile gap\".[134] Nevertheless, the greater nuclear strength of the U.S. was of little value as long as the U.S.S.R. perceived themselves to be at parity.[135] In July 1963 the stage was set for negotiations, and Kennedy sent Averell Harriman to Moscow to negotiate a treaty with the Soviets.[136] The introductory sessions began with Khrushchev, who then delegated Soviet representation to Andrei Gromyko. It quickly became clear that the stated objective of a comprehensive test ban would not reach fruition, due largely to the reluctance of the Soviets for inspections to verify compliance.[137] Ultimately, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were the initial signatories to a limited treaty, which prohibited atomic testing on the ground, in the atmosphere, or underwater, but not underground; the U.S. Senate ratified this and Kennedy signed it into law in October 1963. France was quick to declare that it was free to further develop and test its nuclear defenses.[138] Domestic policy Kennedy called his domestic program the \"New Frontier\". It ambitiously promised federal funding for education, medical care for the elderly, economic aid to rural regions, and government intervention to halt the recession. Kennedy also promised an end to racial discrimination. In his 1963 State of the Union, he proposed substantial tax reform and reduction, in income tax rates, from the current range of 20-90% to a range of 14-65%; he proposed a reduction in the corporate tax rates from 52 to 47%. Congress did not act until 1964, after his death. To the Economics Club of N.Y., he spoke in 1963 of \"...the paradoxical truth that tax rates are too high and revenues too low; and the soundest way to raise revenue in the long term is to lower rates now.\"[139] Few of Kennedy\'s major programs passed Congress during his lifetime, although, under his successor Johnson, Congress did vote them through in 1964–65.[140] Economy Kennedy ended a period of tight fiscal policies, loosening monetary policy to keep interest rates down and encourage growth of the economy.[141] Kennedy presided over the first government budget to top the $100 billion mark, in 1962, and his first budget in 1961 led to the country\'s first non-war, non-recession deficit.[142] The economy, which had been through two recessions in three years and was in one when Kennedy took office, accelerated notably during his brief presidency. Despite low inflation and interest rates, GDP had grown by an average of only 2.2% during the Eisenhower presidency (scarcely more than population growth at the time), and had declined by 1% during Eisenhower\'s last twelve months in office.[143] Stagnation had taken a toll on the nation\'s labor market, as well: unemployment had risen steadily from under 3% in 1953 to 7%, by early 1961.[144] The economy turned around and prospered during the Kennedy administration. GDP expanded by an average of 5.5% from early 1961 to late 1963,[143] while inflation remained steady at around 1% and unemployment eased;[144][145] industrial production rose by 15% and motor vehicle sales leapt by 40%.[146] This rate of growth in GDP and industry continued until around 1966, and has yet to be repeated for such a sustained period of time.[143] There were nevertheless some painful moments, as in the stock market, which had steadily declined since Kennedy\'s election, and which dropped a full 10% shortly after the administration\'s action on the steel industry in 1962.[147] The major steel companies announced in April 1962 a 3.5% price increase (the first in 3 years) within a day of each other. This came just days after the companies had reached a settlement with the steelworkers\' union, providing in chief a wage increase of 2.5%. The administration was furious, with Kennedy saying, \"Why did they do this? Do they think they can get away with this? God, I hate the bastards.\" The president took personal charge of a campaign against the industry, assigning to each cabinet member a statement regarding the effects of the price increase on their area. Robert Kennedy, echoing his brother\'s own sentiments, \"We\'re going for broke...their expense accounts, where they\'ve been and what they\'ve been doing...the FBI is to interview them all...we can\'t lose this.\"[148] Robert took the position that the steel executives had illegally colluded in doing this. There was genuine concern about the inflationary effects of the price increase. The administration\'s actions influenced US Steel to rescind the price increase.[149] The Wall Street Journal wrote that the administration had acted \"by naked power, by threats, by agents of the state security police.\"[150] Yale law professor Charles Reich wrote in The New Republic his opinion that the administration had violated civil liberties by calling a grand jury to indict US Steel for collusion so quickly.[150] A New York Times editorial praised Kennedy\'s actions and said that the steel industry\'s price increase \"imperils the economic welfare of the country by inviting a tidal wave of inflation.\"[151] Nevertheless, the administration\'s Bureau of Budget reported the price increase would have resulted in a net gain for GDP as well as a net budget surplus.[152] Kennedy had little knowledge of the agricultural sector of the economy, and farmers were definitely not on his list of priorities, at least in his 1960 campaign. After giving a speech to a farming community, he rhetorically asked an aide, \"Did you understand any of what I just said in there? I sure didn\'t.\"[153] Federal and military death penalty As President, Kennedy oversaw the last pre-Furman federal execution,[154] and, as of 2008, the last military execution. Governor of Iowa Harold Hughes, a death penalty opponent, personally contacted Kennedy to request clemency for Victor Feguer,[155] who was sentenced to death by a federal court in Iowa, but Kennedy turned down the request[156] and Feguer was executed on March 15, 1963. Kennedy commuted a death sentence imposed by military court on seaman Jimmie Henderson on February 12, 1962, changing the penalty to life in prison.[157] On March 22, 1962, Kennedy signed into law HR5143 (PL87-423), abolishing the mandatory death penalty for first degree murder in the District of Columbia, the only remaining jurisdiction in the United States with a mandatory death sentence for first degree murder, replacing it with life imprisonment with parole if the jury could not decide between life imprisonment and the death penalty, or if the jury chose life imprisonment by a unanimous vote.[158][159] The death penalty in the District of Columbia has not been applied since 1957, and has now been abolished.[160] Civil rights The turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. The Supreme Court of the United States had ruled in 1954 in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Many schools, especially in southern states, did not obey the Supreme Court\'s decision. Segregation had also been prohibited by the Court at other public facilities (e.g. buses, restaurants, theaters, courtrooms, bathrooms, and beaches) but continued nonetheless. Kennedy verbally supported racial integration and civil rights; during the 1960 campaign he telephoned Coretta Scott King, wife of the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., who had been jailed while demonstrating for equal access of African Americans; Kennedy secured the early release of King, which drew additional black support to his candidacy.[161] Nevertheless President Kennedy believed the grass roots movement for civil rights would anger many Southern whites and make it more difficult to pass civil rights laws in Congress, which was dominated by conservative Southern Democrats, and he distanced himself from it.[162] He also was more concerned with other issues early in his presidency, e.g. the \"Bay of Pigs\" fiasco and Southeast Asia. As articulated by brother Robert, the administration\'s early priority was to \"keep the president out of this civil rights mess\". As a result, many civil rights leaders viewed Kennedy as lukewarm, especially concerning the Freedom Riders who organized an integrated public transportation effort in the south, and who were repeatedly met with violence by whites, including law enforcement both federal and state. Kennedy assigned federal marshals to protect the Freedom Riders as an alternative to using federal troops or uncooperative FBI agents. Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to \"get off the buses and leave the matter to peaceful settlement in the courts.\"[163] In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering. Attorney General Robert Kennedy responded by sending some 400 U.S. Marshals, while President Kennedy reluctantly federalized and sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.[164] Campus Riots left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class. On November 20, 1962, Kennedy signed Executive Order 11063, prohibiting racial discrimination in federally supported housing or \"related facilities\".[165] In early 1963, Kennedy related to Martin Luther King, Jr., about the prospects for civil rights legislation: \"If we get into a long fight over this in Congress, it will bottleneck everything else, and we will still get no bill.\"[166] However, civil rights clashes were very much on the rise that year.[167] Brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front.[168] On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the President, and which had hours earlier been under Wallace\'s command. That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation - to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.[169][170] His proposals became part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The day ended with the murder of a N.A.A.C.P. leader, Medgar Evers, at his home in Mississippi.[171] As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.[172] Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women on December 14, 1961.[173] Former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt led the commission. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963.[174] Earlier, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex.[175] Over a hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans, gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963. Kennedy feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. He turned over some of the details of the government\'s involvement to the Dept. of Justice, which channelled hundreds of thousands of dollars to the six sponsors of the March, including the N.A.A.C.P. and Martin Luther King\'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). To ensure a peaceful demonstration, the organizers and the president personally edited speeches which were inflammatory and agreed the March would be held on a Wednesday and would be over at 4:00 pm Thousands of troops were placed on standby. Kennedy watched King\'s speech on TV and was very impressed. The March was considered a \"triumph of managed protest\", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred. Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken. Kennedy felt the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.[176] Nevertheless, the struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on a Sunday at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; at the end of the day six children had died in the explosion and aftermath.[177] As a result of this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some dr
Movih Adhar, (adhar.info@movin.com), 25.09.2011 - 04:29
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Movih Adhar, (adhar.info@movin.com), 25.09.2011 - 04:27
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Movih Adhar, (adhar.info@movin.com), 25.09.2011 - 04:24
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Kristaly Mark, (ht.interparfum@gmail.com), 23.06.2010 - 07:49
Dear Sir, I\'d like to take a minute to introduce myself and my company. My name is Mark Kristaly, and I represent HT Interparfum Kft. We are one of the largest Hungarian fragrance wholesalers, with a regular inventory of over 500 branded fragrances. We currently import fragrances from numerous European countries as well as from some of the largest fragrance wholesalers worldwide, and are currently in the process of expanding our vendors. Prior to our expansion, we\'ve done due diligence on numerous fragrance wholesalers and came up with your company, Orton Ltd as a excellent candidate. We currently sell fragrances nationally here in Hungary, as well as a distribution chain that includes Ukraine, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Slovakia. As we don\'t have proper contact information regarding who in your company handles international/wholesale, if you\'d be kind enough to either forward this letter to the person/persons who handle bulk sales, or give us the contact information so that we could contact them directly, that would be greatly appreciated. If you would also be kind enough to include any of your more recent offer sheets in the reply, that would be an excellent time saver, as It would allow to start cost calculations prior to entering into negotiations. I look forward to your reply, Sincerely, Mark Kristaly -- ................................................................. Kind regards Kristály Mark International business development Manager HT Interparfum Kft. 1144 Budapest, Gvadányi utca 93-95 Hungary Cell Phone 00 36 20 49 64 899 Fax Nr. 00 36 1 68 89 135 The information contained in this e-mail is confidential, may be privileged and isintended solely for the use of the named addressee. Access to this e-mail byany other person is not authorized. If you are not the intended recipient, youshould not disclose, copy, distribute, take any action or rely on the informationcontained within the e-mail. If you have received this communication in error,please telephone HT Interparfum Kft or e-mail ht.interparfum@gmail.com and delete the e-mail from your system. Thank you!!! ...................................................................